COVID-19 Susceptibility, Mortality and Length of Hospitalization based on Age-Sex Composition: Insights for Intervention and Stratification
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread worldwide with an unprecedented impact on society. In the Philippines, several interventions such as mobility restrictions for different age groups and vaccination prioritization programs have been implemented to reduce the risks of infections and mortality. This study aimed to identify age-sex composition with greater susceptibility, longer hospitalization and higher fatality. The COVID-19 cases from March 2020 to April 2021 provided by the Department of Health Davao Region in the Philippines were analyzed. A Chi-square test was used to determine the difference in proportions of COVID-19 cases among age-sex compositions. A correlation plot of χ2 test residual was employed to investigate the differences in susceptibility. Boxplots and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized to compare the length of hospitalizations. The study found a significant difference in the COVID-19 susceptibility among age-sex compositions (p < 0.01). Male children and female senior citizens were the most susceptible age-sex compositions. Furthermore, senior citizens had the longest hospital days wherein the median and IQR days were 19 (15-27) for men and 18 (16-29) for women. Male senior citizen was the subgroup with the highest case fatality (21.4%, p < 0.01). It is recommended that the number of cases among senior citizens be used as an input in the planning and allocation of medical resources at the provincial and regional levels. The local government unit executives in the region can also take advantage of the availability of age-sex composition data in stratifying localities, planning, allocating COVID-19-related resources and imposing mobility restrictions.