Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst <div id="panel-7268-2-0-0" class="so-panel widget widget_heading panel-first-child" data-index="3"> <div class="thim-widget-heading thim-widget-heading-base"> <div class="sc_heading text-center"><center><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong><center></center></center></div> </div> </div> <div id="panel-7268-2-0-1" class="so-panel widget widget_sow-editor panel-last-child" data-index="4"> <div class="so-widget-sow-editor so-widget-sow-editor-base"> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Cabahug.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Editor-in-Chief</strong><br><strong>Ruel R. Cabahug, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Maglaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Archie B. Maglaya, Dr. Tech.</strong><br>De La Salle University<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Chambers.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Therese Chambers, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Technology<br>Jamaica</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Yassin.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mohamed Fathy Yassin, Ph.D.</strong><br>Kuwait University<br>Kuwait</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Oloke.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David A. Oloke, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Metillo.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ephrime B. Metillo, Ph.D.</strong><br>Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology<br>Philippines</td> <td> <p><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Reyes.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Rosula SJ Reyes, Ph.D.</strong><br>Ateneo de Manila University<br>Philippines</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Edwards.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David J. Edwards, Ph.D.</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Hjorth.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Peder Hjorth, Ph.D.</strong><br>Lund Institute of Technology-Lund University<br>Lund, Sweden</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Mgaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Yunus D. Mgaya, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Dar es Salaam<br>Tanzania</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Murad.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Putra Malaysia<br>Malaysia</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Albina.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dionel O. Albina, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Canencia_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Oliva P. Canencia, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Robson.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mark G. Robson, Ph.D.</strong><br>The State University of New Jersey<br>United States of America</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Bergado.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dennes T. Bergado, Ph.D.</strong><br>Asian Institute of Technology<br>Thailand</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Cultura.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ambrosio B. Cultura, II, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Parn.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Erika Pärn</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Khatib.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Jamal Khatib, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Nwagboso_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Christopher O. Nwagboso, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Raheem_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Shehata&nbsp;Eldabie&nbsp;A. Raheem, Dr.Eng.</strong><br>Assiut University<br>Egypt</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Gogi_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Muhammad D. Gogi, Ph.D.</strong>&nbsp;<br>University of Agriculture, Faisalabad<br>Pakistan</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </div> University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines en-US Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology 2244-0410 Land Suitability Evaluation of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Production Areas in Davao City, Philippines https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1952 <p><em>With the growing demand for cocoa, local farmers and other key players of the cocoa industry were encouraged to boost production to secure supply. However, after many decades of cocoa production, soil fertility and available cultivation areas are shrinking. Land suitability evaluation was conducted in areas grown with cocoa in Davao City, Philippines to determine the current suitability and soil-related constraints for cocoa production intensification and expansion. Using the environmental lapse rate, temperature of the area was determined and suitability were evaluated using Food and Agriculture Organization framework with the aid of QGIS software. Based on the result, six soil series were identified as suitable for cocoa. These included the Cabantian, Bolinao (Inayangan), Bolinao (Paquibato), Miral, Tugbok and undifferentiated soil. Cabantian, Miral and Bolinao (Inayangan) were moderately suitable with limitations in slope and soil fertility. Bolinao (Paquibato) was moderately suitable with limitations in soil depth and sloping topography. Tugbok was marginally suitable due to low soil fertility and slight limitation in slope. Undifferentiated soil was moderately suitable with sloping topography, shallow depth and soil fertility constraints. The six suitable soil series had moderate to marginal limitations. The constraints to cocoa production are manageable to some extent.</em></p> Mel Chrisel A. Sales Sylvester C. Sales Rodrigo B. Badayos Pearl B. Sanchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1952 Efficacy of Vermicast from Local Earthworms as Growing Media of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1953 <p><em>The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of vermicast from local earthworms as a growing medium for eggplant, with the goal of exploring the potential of organic fertilizers in boosting vegetable yields and promoting sustainable agriculture practices. It investigated the efficacy of vermicast derived from local earthworms in enhancing seed germination and seedling growth of eggplant using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and three replications. The experiment compared garden soil, vermicast, carbonized rice hull, and combinations of these growing media, evaluating germination percentage, seedling height, number of leaves, and leaf area. Results showed significant differences among treatments, with vermicast and carbonized rice hull exhibiting superior performance compared with garden soil. Carbonized rice hull showed the highest germination percentage in the second and third weeks, while vermicast from local earthworms led to the tallest seedlings and highest leaf area in subsequent weeks, suggesting its preference for cultivating eggplant seedlings. The study highlights the potential of vermicast from local earthworms as a sustainable and effective organic soil amendment for enhancing eggplant growth.</em></p> Anecito M. Anuada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1953 In Silico Research in Glioma Vaccine Discovery from Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Type 1 (R132H) Epitopes https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1954 <p><em>Glioma is a primary malignant brain tumor, which is often detected using the mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1) at the R132H position. Several studies have also reported the use of mutated IDH1 (R132H) specific immunogenic epitopes as vaccines against this tumor. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the high-affinity epitopes of IDH1 (R132H) as a plausible candidate of preventive and curative glioma vaccines and to predict the stability of epitope-receptor complex through molecular dynamics simulation. The binding affinity of epitopes for preventing and treating glioma were predicted by docking epitope to major histocompatibility complexes class II (MHC II) and ephrin type-A receptor 3 (EphA3), respectively, using Dock version 6.7. This study used the rigid body docking method, where the samples were treated in their compact state. The highest binding affinity for MHC II was exhibited by epitope 42, as indicated by a grid score of -62.73 kcal/mol. Meanwhile, epitope 54, with a grid score of -55.56 kcal/mol, had the highest binding affinity for the EphA3 receptor. The results showed that the protein conformation in the 42-MHC II epitope complex changed significantly in molecular dynamics simulations using GROMACS version 5.0.6 at 300 K for 25 ns with RMSD &gt; 3 Å, while epitope 54-EphA3 complex was stable from the beginning up to 15.29 ns. Based on these findings, the best candidates for prophylactic and curative glioma vaccination were epitope 42 and 54, respectively.</em></p> Yeni Yeni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1954 A Comparative Assessment Study on the Prolactin Gene as a Genetic Marker for Milk Production in High Milk-Producing Mammals through Phylogenetic Analysis https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1956 <p><em>The prolactin (PRL) gene is a focus in milk-related studies for high-yielding ruminants like dairy cows, water buffaloes, dairy goats, and sheep. Despite its recognition as a genetic marker for milk traits, little is known about the specific genetic features enabling heightened milk production. The PRL nucleotide sequence of the ruminants and the human outgroup were obtained from the GenBank database. Using the MEGA 7 software, amino acid translation was conducted and multisequence analysis was done, allowing for the construction of phylogenetic trees. In both trees, ruminants were consistently clustered together forming pairings of the dairy cow: water buffalo and the dairy goat: sheep. In the nucleotide sequences of all the involved taxa, cytosine and guanine were the unanimous most and least comprised nucleotide. In the amino acid composition, the unanimous most and least amino acid percentages were leucine and tryptophan, respectively. Leucine, being the highest comprised, was substantiated by related studies stating that such amino acid is highly involved in milk production and yield. Glycine percentages were found to be higher in ruminants than in humans, providing a possible reasoning for such milk-yield disparity in the involved taxa.</em></p> Luchin Valrian R. Pueblos Christine Cherry E. Solon Vanessa Mae C. Tumang Carlo Stephen O. Moneva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1956 Untargeted Metabolomics of the Sea Cucumber, Bohadschia marmorata (Jaeger, 1833) https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1957 <p><em>The marine invertebrates such as sea cucumber are regarded as sources of diverse bioactive compounds with promising health and nutritional benefits. Many commercially traded sea cucumber species have been explored, yet none of the local low-value types in the province of La Union, Philippines. This study aimed to establish a baseline metabolomic profile of Bohadschia marmorata (Jaeger, 1833). The identification of compounds in its body wall utilized an Orbitrap MS-based approach. Metabolites were annotated using Compound Discover 3.2, and similarity searches were performed from online databases. Eleven putatively identified compounds, which included saponin (3beta,5xi,9xi)-28-Hydroxy-28-oxoolean-12-en-3-yl-beta-Dgalac topyranosyl-(1-3)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid, fatty acids and their byproducts such as eicosanoid (11,12-Epoxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z)-icosatrienoic acid) and prostanoids (13,14-dihydro Prostaglandin F1?; 13,14-Dihydro-15-keto Prostaglandin A2), dicarboxylic acids (tetradecanedioic acid; dodecanedioic acid; suberic acid; NP-001596), and amino acid (4-Oxoproline). The metabolic profile of the B. marmorata body wall showed a diverse group of representative metabolites common among holothurians associated with innate defense mechanisms, structural composition, and products of metabolic pathways. There is, however, a need to further isolate these compounds using other methods and test their biological activities.</em></p> Wilson L. Laranang Dianne A. Peralta Victoria N. Malaya Paulina A. Bawingan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1957 Targeting the Coronavirus SARS‑CoV‑2’s Envelope, Nucleocapsid, and Spike/ Spike RBD Protein: Computational Insight from Multiple Bioactive Compounds as Potential Anti-Viral Drug Candidates https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1958 <p><em>Global health, social, and economic systems have been seriously threatened by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In addition to the increasing number of deaths, thousands of COVID-19 survivors continue to experience life-altering illness. This study aimed to evaluate multiple bioactive compounds from various indigenous medicinal plants against the structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including the envelope, nucleocapsid, and spike/spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins, in search of potential antiviral drug candidates. Computational analysis was used to screen for binding affinities and assess chemical interactions between ligands and target proteins. The findings revealed the top three potential compounds to bind to the envelope protein (cafestol, kahweol, and ledene), nucleocapsid protein (cafestol, kahweol, and thearubigin), spike protein (tannic acid, eugeniin, and kahweol), and spike RBD protein (kahweol, cafestol, and tannic acid). Moreover, the study identified four types of plants that contain potential bioactive compounds against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, including black tea (Camellia sinensis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and star anise (Illicium verum). Interestingly, kahweol exhibited possible binding activity against all four target proteins. This result suggests that bioactive compounds from the listed medicinal plants could potentially be developed into antiviral drugs against COVID-19.</em></p> Wira Eka Putra Muhammad Fikri Heikal Sustiprijatno Sustiprijatno Arief Hidayatullah Diana Widiastuti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1958 Design and Performance Evaluation of a Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Slicing Machine https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1959 <p><em>One challenge in cashew apple (CA) production is the absence of processing equipment, leading to manual operations. Cashew apple processors often resort to manual slicing, resulting in uneven thickness and increased manpower requirements. This study aimed to address these issues by developing a slicing machine that ensures uniform thickness and reduces the need for manual labor during the slicing process. The machine underwent evaluation at three different slicing speeds (28, 42, and 60 strokes per minute [spm]). The most efficient speed was found to be 60 spm, with a slicing capacity of 249.26 kg/h and a slicing efficiency of 86.66%. The corresponding rates for damaged sliced CAs and juice extraction during slicing were 4.93 and 22.33%, respectively. In comparison, manual slicing demonstrated a capacity of 32.21 kg/h and a slicing efficiency of 29.99%. The machine’s capacity was almost eight times higher than that of manual slicing. The optimal slicing speed for CAs was determined to be 60 spm, which significantly reduced losses in terms of thickness, extraction, and physical damage of CA during the slicing process. Using the machine not only minimized the time required for slicing but also reduced labor costs, making it a more efficient and economically viable option for CA processing.</em></p> Kay J. Jaranilla Hellen F. Gavino Romeo B. Gavino Carolyn Grace G. Somera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1959 Statistical Models for Outbreak Detection of Measles in North Cotabato, Philippines https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1960 <p><em>A measles outbreak occurs when the number of cases of measles in the population exceeds the typical level. Outbreaks that are not detected and managed early can increase mortality and morbidity and incur costs from activities responding to these events. The number of measles cases in the Province of North Cotabato, Philippines, was used in this study. Weekly reported cases of measles from January 2016 to December 2021 were provided by the Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit of the North Cotabato Provincial Health Office. Several integer-valued autoregressive (INAR) time series models were used to explore the possibility of detecting and identifying measles outbreaks in the province along with the classical ARIMA model. These models were evaluated based on goodness of fit, measles outbreak detection accuracy, and timeliness. The results of this study confirmed that INAR models have the conceptual advantage over ARIMA since the latter produces non-integer forecasts, which are not realistic for count data such as measles cases. Among the INAR models, the ZINGINAR (1) model was recommended for having a good model fit and timely and accurate detection of outbreaks. Furthermore, policymakers and decision-makers from relevant government agencies can use the ZINGINAR (1) model to improve disease surveillance and implement preventive measures against contagious diseases beforehand.</em></p> Julienne Kate N. Kintanar Roel F. Ceballos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1960 Detecting Vegetation Cover Change in Reforestation Sites from 2013 to 2019 in Central Visayas, Philippines Using Remotely Sensed Data https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1961 <p><em>Assessment of reforestation success is indispensable to document the impact of the project and whether it has achieved the intended objectives. Globally, the use of remotely sensed data is a widely accepted method to track changes in reforestation sites. Hence, this study investigated the changes in Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index (NDVI) using LandSat 8 images to assess vegetation cover in National Greening Program reforestation sites in Central Visayas from 2013 to 2019. Results showed that there was a minimal increase of NDVI (0.002 to 0.07) and a 9% (286 ha) gain of dense vegetation cover in the sampling sites which may be attributed to the reforestation activity. Forest gain was highest in Negros Oriental (262 ha) while Cebu lost 29 ha of dense vegetation. Field data confirmed that tree biomass density (245 Mg/ha) was highest in Negros Oriental and lowest in Cebu (78 Mg/ha). Analysis of variance revealed that there was no significant change in forest cover between 2013 and 2019. The program reported a total of 42,000 ha as their accomplishment in the region which was planted with 500 fast-growing tree species per hectare. If the seedlings successfully survived, this could have increased considerably forest cover in the region by up to 60%. Thus, it is important to revisit the reforestation program’s policies and processes to build on the strengths and avoid mistakes for future projects. It is also vital to integrate cost-effective, accurate, and real-time monitoring schemes that ensure the attainment of the key objectives.</em></p> Nimfa R. Pansit Richard B. Parilla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1961 Growth and Carcass Performance of Male White Leghorn Fed with Organic and Commercial Free-Range Diets raised under Extensive Rearing System https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1962 <p><em>In layer industry, male White Leghorns are considered production wastes and are commonly killed after hatching. However, these chickens are overlooked as an additional source of meat for human consumption. With the current decline of chicken meat supply in the country, this study raised 400 hardened (45 days [d]) male White Leghorns to determine their suitability in meat production and profitability to be raised under a free-range system fed with different diets (i.e., organic and commercial free-range diets). Chickens were randomly distributed to eight houses with ranging areas. All management practices and feed composition strictly adhered to the Philippine guidelines. Growth performance data were collected twice a month. To assess the carcass traits, five chickens per house were randomly sacrificed at 75 and 90 d. Results revealed that chickens that received commercial free-range diet had significantly better growth (45 to 87 d and 45 to 101 d) and carcass performance. On the other hand, chickens fed with organic diets had significantly yellower skin and lean meat in the leg part. More mature chickens upon slaughter significantly had higher carcass traits. Moreover, male White Leghorns fed with organic or commercial free-range diets had high positive margin over feed cost. In conclusion, raising male White Leghorn under extensive rearing system and fed with either organic and commercial free-range diets can be a profitable business venture and additional source of chicken meat.</em></p> Noel B. Lumbo Agapita J. Salces Maria Cynthia R. Oliveros Jose Alberto I. Nuez III Blessy Hanna M. Albaladejo Jorge Michael D. Dominguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 22 1 10.61310/mjst.v22i1.1962