Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst <div id="panel-7268-2-0-0" class="so-panel widget widget_heading panel-first-child" data-index="3"> <div class="thim-widget-heading thim-widget-heading-base"> <div class="sc_heading text-center"><center><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong><center></center></center></div> </div> </div> <div id="panel-7268-2-0-1" class="so-panel widget widget_sow-editor panel-last-child" data-index="4"> <div class="so-widget-sow-editor so-widget-sow-editor-base"> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Cabahug.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Editor-in-Chief</strong><br><strong>Ruel R. Cabahug, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Maglaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Archie B. Maglaya, Dr. Tech.</strong><br>De La Salle University<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Chambers.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Therese Chambers, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Technology<br>Jamaica</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Yassin.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mohamed Fathy Yassin, Ph.D.</strong><br>Kuwait University<br>Kuwait</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Oloke.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David A. Oloke, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Metillo.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ephrime B. Metillo, Ph.D.</strong><br>Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology<br>Philippines</td> <td> <p><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Reyes.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Rosula SJ Reyes, Ph.D.</strong><br>Ateneo de Manila University<br>Philippines</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Edwards.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David J. Edwards, Ph.D.</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Hjorth.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Peder Hjorth, Ph.D.</strong><br>Lund Institute of Technology-Lund University<br>Lund, Sweden</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Mgaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Yunus D. Mgaya, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Dar es Salaam<br>Tanzania</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Murad.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Putra Malaysia<br>Malaysia</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Albina.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dionel O. Albina, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Canencia_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Oliva P. Canencia, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Robson.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mark G. Robson, Ph.D.</strong><br>The State University of New Jersey<br>United States of America</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Bergado.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dennes T. Bergado, Ph.D.</strong><br>Asian Institute of Technology<br>Thailand</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Cultura.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ambrosio B. Cultura, II, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Parn.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Erika Pärn</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Khatib.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Jamal Khatib, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Nwagboso_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Christopher O. Nwagboso, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Raheem_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Shehata&nbsp;Eldabie&nbsp;A. Raheem, Dr.Eng.</strong><br>Assiut University<br>Egypt</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Gogi_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Muhammad D. Gogi, Ph.D.</strong>&nbsp;<br>University of Agriculture, Faisalabad<br>Pakistan</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </div> University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines en-US Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology 2244-0410 Effectiveness of Kantutay (Lantana camara Linn.) Extract against Rice Stem Borer https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/532 <p>This experimental study determined the effectiveness of the Kantutay (Lantana camara Linn.) as an organic pesticide against rice stem borer (Sciropophaga incertulas). A single factor randomized complete block design was utilized for efficacy tests of the L. camara extract under laboratory and field conditions. Results showed that the extracted L. camara had an insecticidal activity against the rice stem borer. The pure concentration obtained the highest mortality rate – 86.11 and 85.19% under field and laboratory conditions, respectively. Under field conditions, the plant’s extract was significantly less effective compared to the commercial pesticide. However, it was not significantly different in terms of effectiveness under laboratory conditions.</p> Josephine A. Gonzales ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Green Synthesis of Silicon Carbide from Sugarcane Bagasse through Magnesiothermic Reduction: A Potential Biomaterial for Photovoltaic Solar Cell https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/533 <p style="text-align: justify;">Sugarcane bagasse is the most abundant agricultural waste in terms of tonnage in the Philippines. This biomass can be converted into silicon carbide (SiC) – an important material for photovoltaic (PV) cells. SiC was prepared at 600 °C for 4 hours with the use of magnesium powder as a catalyst and it was further enhanced by doping through the solvothermal method. The successfully synthesized SiC appeared grayish in color having an average yield of 8.56%. The SiC was doped with varying amounts of urea (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0, 0.02 M), an n-type dopant, and carried out in triplicate basis. Incorporation of n-type dopants increased its capability to be a good built-in voltage and absorbent of light. Effective band-gap energies of semiconductor material for the PV cells were in the range of 1.0-1.7 eV. Urea-doped SiC exhibited a higher wavelength compared with undoped SiC, which could imply their differences in bandgap. The conductance testing showed that electrical conductivity established a positive relationship with dopant concentrations. Appeared to be crystalline in nature, the surface morphology of doped and undoped SiC was determined through scanning electron microscope. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the crystallinity of the synthesized material. The elemental analysis and vibrational frequencies through energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared analyses proved the presence of silicon and carbon in the material. Therefore, sugarcane bagasse can be processed chemically to generate new products for solar cell applications employing simple and low-cost method.</p> Aurelio L. Cardozo Juvy J. Monserate Joel R. Salazar Paul Jhon G. Eugenio Marilou M. Sarong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Strategies and Approaches of Companies in Portugal and Spain in Complying with the REACH Regulation https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/534 <p>The implementation of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation had been viewed to be the most ambitious chemicals legislation in the world and had placed a great challenge among the European Union (EU) member states. While government regulatory agencies were focused on how they can successfully implement and enforce the legislation, the industries’ concern was to guarantee the compliance with the regulation. Despite the progress, implementation of the regulation still experienced significant problems in the quality of the information provided by companies in their registration dossiers. Given that the success of the REACH process depended primarily on the adequate and reliable information supplied by industries, there was a need to document and manage the knowledge gained and generated since its implementation. Data from survey questionnaires revealed that major issues and concerns identified by industries consisted of communication problems among participants in the implementation of the Substance Information Exchange Forum (SIEF), failure to reach an agreement on the sharing of existing data, testing cost and lack of response from suppliers in the use of substance and correction of errors in the safety data sheet. To address these issues and concerns, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) implemented the SIEF for EU-based chemical industries to form consortiums and jointly carry out registration and dossier submission. Participants identified SIEF as the best practice enabling companies to complete their registration and dossier submission, as well as the most efficient method in complying with REACH regulation.</p> Shella I. Talampas Isabel Cavaco Daniel Sainz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Effects of Water-Reducing Admixture on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Crushed Mangima Stone as Fine Aggregate https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/535 <p>Crushed Mangima stone as an alternative concrete aggregate has been studied and found to provide concrete with comparable compressive strength to that of the conventional concrete. This study investigated the effect of water-reducing admixtures in concrete production using crushed Mangima stone as fine aggregate. Waterreducing admixture with a variance of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% by weight of cement was added to the concrete mixture. A water-cement ratio of 0.57 was used for this study. Samples were cured at seven, 14, and 28 days and tested for compression after each curing period. The compressive strength of concrete using water-reducing admixtures showed an early strength and passed the minimum requirement of 3,000 psi. Results revealed that through the use of admixtures, compressive strength obtained from all samples was higher than the control mixture. This means that using crushed Mangima stone has its potential to be used as fine aggregate in a structural concrete mixture with the addition of water-reducing admixture</p> Jonathan B. Calibara Ruel R. Cabahug ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 In Situ Digestibility of Cogon Grass (Imperata cylindrica L.) in Various Forms and Harvesting Intervals in Rumen-Fistulated Brahman Cattle https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/536 <p>An experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value and nutrient digestibility in situ of cogon grass as affected by harvesting intervals in fresh and silage forms. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 5 factorial treatment design: factor A with two forms of cogon grass (soilage and silage), and factor B with five harvesting intervals after the last cutting (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days). Nutrient digestibility was determined by incubating ground samples of cogon grass soilage and silage in rumen-fistulated Brahman bull for 24 hours. Results revealed that cogon grass was best utilized in terms of the in situ digestibility of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) at 20-day old after the last cutting and in silage form. Digestibility of dry matter (DM), OM and NDF of cogon grass in silage form were high at 25-30 days harvesting interval but these were significantly lower than that of 20 days interval. Therefore, the silage form of cogon grass is superior over fresh form, and the best utilization of cogon grass as feed is at 20 days after the last cutting to capitalize on high digestibility</p> Elmar M. Patiga Lolito C. Bestil Hershey P. Mondejar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Application of Adaptive Contrast Stretching Algorithm in Improving Face Recognition Under Varying Illumination Conditions https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/537 <p>This work proposed a novel algorithm, adaptive contrast stretching algorithm (ACS), in improving face recognition under varying illumination conditions. The ACS algorithm, whose building blocks are tuned logarithm filter and anisotropic diffusion filter (ADF), was used to preprocess samples of face images obtained from the extended Yale face database B. The resulting preprocessed data was split into training and testing datasets. While the training dataset was used to train a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), the testing dataset was subdivided into four subsets based on the azimuthal angle of illumination. In order to compare the recognition accuracy obtained from using the ACS algorithm, the face images in the training dataset were successively processed using discrete cosine transform, difference of Gaussian, weber faces, multi-scale retinex and single-scale retinex. The respective output images obtained from each technique were used to train the DCNN. The result obtained from each technique showed that the developed ACS algorithm significantly outperformed other algorithms used in this study with an accuracy of 95%. This value is 2.5% greater than the unimproved version of the ADF, which is currently one of the acclaimed techniques used by most computer vision researchers in the surveyed literature.</p> Chinedu God’swill Olebu Jide Julius Popoola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Growth Response of Anonang (Cordia dichotoma Forst) Using Different Soil Enhancers https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/538 <p>The three-month-old native species of Anonang (Cordia dichotoma Forst) were planted in potting bags in a nursery to determine its growth progress as influenced by different soil enhancers. The study was laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications per treatment. Each treatment had 16 plants having a total of 80 plants. Growth parameters used were percent survival, height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf area, total fresh weight, and total plant biomass. Results and analyses revealed that among treatments, the most suited one was the decomposed rice hay, which obtained the highest survival rate (93.75%), tallest height (39.48 cm), biggest stem diameter (0.61 mm), highest number of leaves (14 counts), largest leaf area (46.62 cm2 ), and heaviest shoot (10.94 g), root (1.79 g) and total plant (12.73 g) biomass. Hence, it is recommended to establish tree nurseries for raising Anonang seedlings. Since the duration of the study was only six months, future work should focus on testing the survival of Anonang in the field with a prolonged time of at least one year to achieve more valuable results.</p> Melody M. Bad-e Shierel F. Vallesteros Marlon U. Saludarez Arvin P. Vallesteros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Determinants of Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Upland Rice Farming System in Sarangani Province, Philippines https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/539 <p>This study identified the determinants of productivity and technical efficiency (TE) of upland rice in Sarangani Province, Philippines. Data were taken from 326 randomly identified beneficiaries of the Special Area for Agricultural Development (SAAD) program. Descriptive statistics, cost and return analysis, probit regression and the stochastic production frontier were employed in the analysis. The probit estimation revealed that age, the tribe of the farmers, educational attainment, years in farming, membership in an organization, farm income, number of extension visits, and planted area were found to significantly influence the productivity of upland rice farmers. Concerning stochastic frontier estimation, labor, seeds, nitrogen, phosphorus and two varieties of upland rice seeds were found to be significant factors affecting upland rice productivity. These played an important role in terms of changing their TE score. The mean TE score was 77% indicating that there was a 23% allowance for improving efficiency. Meanwhile, farm and farmers’ characteristics were unable to explain why farms were less technically efficient. With these, farmers should minimize the use of nitrogen application to avoid a possible oversupply of nutrients and expand the utilization of labor, seeds, and phosphorus fertilizer to achieve a higher yield of upland rice.</p> Keno Jay M. Balogbog Norma U. Gomez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Towards Reducing Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Local Fashion Designers in South-Western Nigeria https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/540 <p>Local fashion designers (FaDes) are faced with the daunting task of sewing clothes. Sitting position, a reflection of the type of chair used, is one factor influencing their performance. This study evaluated the currently used FaDes chair and the effect of sitting posture. It also designed and fabricated an improved fashion designer (IFaDes) chair. Assessment of the ergonomic status of the FaDes chair was carried out and anthropometric data were obtained using a structured questionnaire among 375 apprentices and 125 managers. Percentile distributions of data were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences. The survey yielded 88% response rate of which the majority reported to have experienced various difficulties with the FaDes chairs. Neck, leg, hand, waist and back pains were commonly reported with waist pain as the most prevalent (75.5%). The anthropometric data with the percentiles (5th -90th) were popliteal (36.30-53.00 cm) and buttock height (14.95-33.00 cm), seat (22.00- 33.00 cm) and buttock breadth (19.00-30.00 cm), and buttock-popliteal length (35.00- 49.49 cm), among others. Using these data, the IFaDes chair’s design was conceptualized through Solidworks; it was then fabricated using locally available materials. The provision of backrest to supports user’s torso was an added feature. Qualitative evaluation of the IFaDes chair was employed using the same respondents for a minimum of 168 h. The respondents reported that the IFaDes chair was satisfactorily designed and fabricated. They experienced improved comforts in sitting posture and reduced musculoskeletal disorders.</p> Olasunkanmi O. Akinyemi Hezekiah O. Adeyemi Wasiu A. Raheem Oyetunde A. Adeaga Ugbe O. Adie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Promoting Effects of Paclobutrazol on the Productivity of Different Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ecotypes Under Rainfed Lowland Condition https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/541 <p>Rainfed lowland rice ecosystem occupies ~30% (~1.4 M ha) of the total rice production area in the Philippines. In this ecosystem, other rice varieties or ecotypes not bred for this ecosystem are also cultivated and may suffer from severe yield loss when drought occurs. Under such stress condition, paclobutrazol (PBZ) was reported to improve physiological processes and enhance yield of tillering crops by increasing the number of tillers and panicles. This study aimed to determine the effects of PBZ on the growth and yield response of different rice ecotypes under rainfed condition. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with PBZ concentrations (0, 250, 500 ppm) as main plot applied at 14 days after transplanting. Rice ecotypes, namely rainfed lowland (PSB Rc14), irrigated lowland (NSIC Rc222), upland-special quality (Dinorado) and lowland-special quality (NSIC Rc216) as subplot, were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that PBZ temporarily suppressed plant height of different rice ecotypes as they were able to recover resulting in increased plant height at maturity. PBZ also improved the tillering and tiller’s ability to produce panicles resulting in a higher number of panicles at maturity. Other yield components, namely panicle length, number of spikelets and filled spikelets per panicle, especially percent filled grains, were also improved. Grain yield likewise increased with different optimum PBZ concentrations for each rice ecotype. A lower concentration (250 ppm) gave the highest grain yield for lowland rice ecotype while higher concentration (500 ppm) for special-quality rice.</p> Meliza P. Magtalas Ace Mugssy L. Agustin Pacifico T. Vizmonte, Jr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Bacteriological Therapeutic-Based Strategy for Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato Plants https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/542 <p>Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc) causes a destructive wilt disease in tomato. With consideration to the environment and human health concerns, the bioagents as alternative procedures for defense against the plant pathogen were investigated. The potentiality of the antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC® 11774™) reached 53% against the growth of F. oxysporum in a dual culture technique. The proteolytic; B. subtilis strain; was found to be a potent producer of amino acids under in vitro. Fractionation of the fermented hydrolysate showed the liberation of glutamic acid (760.15 mg/L), glycine (414.65 mg/L), aspartic acid (291.1 mg/L), cysteine (268.45 mg/L) and lysine (51.9 mg/L). In a greenhouse experiment, seed treatment with crude extract of amino acids and/or Bacillus subtilis cells demonstrated the greatest suppression of wilt symptoms on tomato seedlings. Moreover, pronounced plant growth promotion in root and shoot lengths, number of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights of tomato plants was noticed. Biochemical parameters (photosynthetic pigments, total polyphenols, flavonoids, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase enzymes) were also upgraded. Antioxidant capacity of the plants – ABTS (%), DPPH (%) and reducing power – positively responded to the investigated treatments.</p> Abeer A. Ghoniem Ehsan M. Rashad Ayman Y. El-Khateeb WesamEldin I.A. Saber ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Financial Performance of Biogas-Driven Pump-Based Integrated Farming System https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/543 <p>The biogas-driven pump-based integrated farm with a total land area of 1.08 ha is located in Bakir, Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. The farm owner was primarily practicing monoculture with rice as the product. Originally, the annual income of the farmer is Php 66,087.51. With the introduction of the biogas-driven pump-based integrated farming system (IFS), the income of the farm owner has increased to Php 196,940.13. The farm is now engaged in rice, vegetables, swine, and fish production. It was found out that both systems have a positive net present value; therefore, they are financially viable. However, biogas-driven pump-based IFS has a higher net present value of Php 601,461.41 compared with monoculture (Php 116,040.11). For the internal rate of return, biogas-driven pump-based IFS has a higher rate than the monoculture. Concerning the return on investment, the biogas-driven pump-based IFS has a rate of 25%, which is higher than the monoculture (13%).</p> Adornado C. Vergara Clyde D. Mendoza Chariz N. Raros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Non-Destructive Prediction of Moisture Content of Philippine Coffea arabica and Coffea liberica Green Beans Using Locally-Developed NIR Spectroscopy Instrument https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/544 <p>Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses the NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum and analyzes the degree of absorption. It is widely used in agriculture to determine rapidly and non-destructively the internal or external qualities of agricultural products since traditional techniques are costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In green coffee beans, moisture content (MC) is one of the most important quality parameters; hence, rapid and reliable measurement of the attribute is essential. This study aimed to predict the MC of green coffee beans of four varieties of Coffea arabica (Typica, Caturra, Red Bourbon and Yellow Bourbon) and two accessions of Coffea liberica (Tolentino and Calabuso) using the local NIR spectrometer developed by previous researchers. Absorbance spectra of 100 samples for each variety/accession were collected and their MC was analyzed using the gravimetric method. The multivariate calibration models that considered 30 components in the region of water were established using R software by partial least squares (PLS) regression and validated using a separate set of samples. Results showed that the PLS regression model could develop multivariate models that can predict the MC of coffee beans. Among the six coffee samples, the calibration model for C. arabica – Typica obtained the highest cross-validated coefficient of determination (R 2 cv = 0.8556) with cross-validated root mean square error of prediction (RMSEPcv) of 0.6355 while C. liberica – Tolentino obtained the lowest R2 cv (0.6169) with RMSEPcv of 1.128.</p> Marilyn M. Escobar Al Eugene L. Torres Neren Jane M. Rodriguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Efficacy of Slow Sand Filtration System Embedded with Activated Carbon for Agro-Industrial Wastewater Treatment https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/545 <p>Indiscriminate disposal of untreated cassava wastewater is a major environmental challenge faced by communities hosting indigenous cassava processors in Nigeria. This study is therefore aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a simple slow sand filtration system embedded with activated carbon layer for cassava wastewater treatment. The filters were loaded in layers with graded sand, gravel, and varying thickness of activated carbon bed. Cassava wastewater was obtained from a processing site at Ibogun, Ogun State, Nigeria. The filters were filled and left for about two weeks for “schmutzdecke” to form on the top surface of the sand bed and then operated at room temperature (28-34 °C) at hydraulic retention times of 6, 12, and 24 h. The result showed that collected wastewater had a mean value of 1357 NTU, 385, 31.87, and 716 mg/L of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively. These values were above the permissible limit set by the local and international regulatory agencies. The filters with activated carbon showed a drastic reduction in the pollutants load (BOD: 38%-57%, COD: 26%-46%, HCN: 79%, and NTU: 96.5%-98%). This is corroborated by P-values</p> Babashola D. Odugbose Nurudeen S. Lawal Babatunde O. Adetifa Hezekiah O. Adeyemi Jarumi A. Mangey Adedotun T. Adegoke Olusegun S. Afolabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Effect of Exposure to Airborne Chalk Dust Particles on Students’ Respiratory Function https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/546 <p>The use and reuse function of chalkboard produces chalk dust particles in the classroom entering into the classroom occupants’ respiratory system through their mouths and nasopharyngeal regions while talking or breathing. The potential impact of dust particles of the respiratory system includes airflow resistance, lung volumes impairment and lung damage. This study measured the expired volume of air from the lungs during a guided maximal expiration to determine the effect of chalk dust particles on the ultimate lung function in the classroom. The sociodemographic characteristics of the participants were assessed using oral interview while the assessment of the anthropometric data and the participants’ lung function indices was done through the use of a stadiometer and digital spirometer, respectively. This study employed a quasiexperimental research design. It involved the exposed (n = 120) and control (n = 120) groups selected from classrooms where chalkboards and marker boards were used, respectively. The results revealed that among the lung functions indices investigated, there were statistical significant differences between the exposed and the control groups in FEV1 (%) (0.002), PEFR (L/s) (0.000), FEF25 (L/s) (0.000) FEF75 (L/s) (0.000), FEF25-75 (L/s) (0.000), FEV1 (%) (0.002) but no significant differences in FEV1 (0.135), FVC (0.493) and FVC (L) (0.506). Therefore, chalk dust particles from chalkboard usage had a negative effect on the respiratory function (lung function indices) in the classrooms.</p> Adinife P. Azodo Ismaila S. Olasunkanmi Udeme V. Akpan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Application on the Postharvest Quality of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Var. EVIARC Sweet https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/547 <p>Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and important genus Artocarpus. The study was conducted to determine the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizer application on the physicochemical and sensory acceptability of jackfruit and identify which nutrient management scheme would give the best postharvest quality. Each replication had four sample trees per treatment. The treatments were designated as follows: T0 – control (no fertilizer application), T1 – inorganic fertilizer (0.830 kg complete fertilizer/tree + 3.329 kg solophos phosphate/tree + 0.726 kg KCl/tree), and T2 – vermicast (75 kg/tree). Analysis of variance and treatment comparison by the least significant difference were performed using the Statistical Tool for Agriculture Research (STAR). Application of organic and inorganic fertilizer significantly influenced the pulp width and circumference and core width of jackfruit. T1 gave bigger pulp circumference (11.38 cm), longest pulp length (7.13 cm) and highest number of pulp per fruit (138.75). The color a (redness/blueness) and b (yellowness) values, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), percent titratable acidity (%TA), vitamin C and juice yield were significantly affected by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizer. The b* values indicate the yellowness of the fresh-cut jackfruit pulp. It was observed that T1 and T2 had noticeably lower +b* than those without fertilizer application as indicated by the lower intensity of yellow color. Sensorial analyses of color, aroma, sweetness, firmness, flavor, and juiciness were not significantly influenced by fertilizer application. The two nutrient management schemes revealed comparable general acceptability of jackfruit.</p> Rosalia L. Briones Dario P. Lina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir Produced by Kefir Grains in Raw and Pasteurized Cow’s Milk https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/548 <p>The traditional production of kefir uses raw milk as a fermentation substrate which is not acceptable due to food safety issues. However, kefir grains were reported to have antimicrobial properties. Hence, this study determined if kefir grains inhibited certain spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms by comparing the chemical and microbiological properties of the initial substrates: raw milk (RM) and pasteurized milk (PM) to the final products: raw milk kefir (RMK) and pasteurized milk kefir (PMK). Both final products had a significant decrease in fat, moisture, and pH, and a significant increase in protein, total solids, and titratable acidity than RM and PM, respectively. Total solids, titratable acidity, pH, total alcohol, and ethanol were significantly higher in PMK than RMK. RMK had a significantly lower coliform count than RM while both RMK and PMK had significantly higher lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold count than RM and PM, respectively. Kefir grains’ microbial inhibiting activity was examined if plates were positive or negative against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Escherichia coli-positive plates in Levine’s eosin methylene blue agar decreased in RMK. Salmonella spp.-positive plates in bismuth sulphite agar (BSA), Hektoen enteric agar, and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar decreased in RMK and PMK except for RMK in BSA. Staphylococcus aureus-positive plates in Baird-Parker agar decreased in RMK. RMK and PMK attained the kefir’s standard values for the chemical composition, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold count. Nonetheless, the mere presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in the final products made it unsafe for consumption.</p> Ma. Czarina R. Moreno Olivia C. Emata ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Development of J48 Algorithm-Based Application in Predicting Teacher’s Techno-Pedagogical Competence https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/549 <p>Education 4.0 in the Philippines encourages the use of advanced technologies in facilitating the educational ecosystem where teachers are required to be competent in information and communications technology (ICT). On the contrary, the established instrument in assessing the pedagogical ICT competence in the Philippines is still a manual process showing a gap between the actual and the ideal in terms of education 4.0 requirement. In this paper, it is empirical to develop a model and implement this model in actual system development where the software learns through time based on the data collected from the system users in predicting the pedagogical ICT competence of the teachers. This study was conducted in a Philippine state university, where the total enumeration of the respondents was taken. The use of Knowledge Discovery in Databases was utilized to develop a model using J48 algorithm, evaluated through 10- cross-fold validation, and used to develop an application that predicts the pedagogical ICT competence of the teacher using R programming. The result showed a significant improvement and efficiency in predicting the pedagogical ICT competence of the teachers.</p> Las Johansen B. Caluza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Bottom Sediments of Laguna de Bay, Philippines https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/550 <p>The combination of pollution and ecological risk indices gives both qualitative and quantitative information on an ecosystem’s status. This study utilized such a combination to assess the health of Laguna de Bay, Philippines by determining the physicochemical characteristics of its bottom sediments. Two very distinct regions of the lake were sampled: the east bay whose watersheds are mostly of agricultural land uses, and the west bay whose watersheds are dominated by urban areas. Samples of grabbed sediments were analyzed for their grain and particle size distributions, mineralogical compositions, and heavy metal concentrations. The finer sediment fractions were further analyzed for their chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, and cadmium concentrations and a representative sample was also analyzed for its mineralogical composition. Based on size analyses, all samples were dominated by sediments finer than 250 µm or medium sand. Mineralogical analysis of a representative sample indicated that the finer fractions of sediments have high concentrations of plagioclase and various clay minerals (montmorillonite and halloysite). Concerning heavy metals, the clay fractions registered higher concentrations. The sediments vary from being slightly to moderately contaminated based on a modified contamination index. Their potential ecological risks to biological resources can be considered as very high due to the high concentrations of heavy metals in the finest sediment fractions that are also the most bioavailable. These results highlight the importance of considering sediment compositions to provide a more complete assessment of lake ecosystems.</p> Marlon V. Elvira Decibel V. Faustino-Eslava Mayuko Fukuyama Emmanuel Ryan C. de Chavez Jenielyn T. Padrones ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2 Laboratory Pullout Test of Geogrid Reinforcements for Submerged Mechanically Stabilized Earth for Waterfront Applications https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/551 <p>The design and evaluation of mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall structures for riverbank protection, quays, sea walls and other waterfront structures is critically dependent on a design parameter called the interaction coefficient (Ci) for submerged or fully saturated condition. However, the available research works conducted in this field are limited to non-submerged and, at most, partially saturated condition. This limitation does not closely represent actual conditions where waterfront structures are almost often submerged and fully saturated. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the Ci in a submerged condition, on top of the Ci in a non-submerged condition for different types of geogrid reinforcement for fine-grained soils and coarsegrained soils used for MSE walls. Test results revealed that the Ci decreased as the effective overburden stress increased. The submerged conditions yielded lower Ci compared with non-submerged conditions, and the reduction wassignificant at a lower effective overburden stress for high density polyethylene uniaxial geogrid than the polyvinyl coated polyester yarn. The design parameters derived from these conditions can be used for the evaluation and design of MSE walls for waterfront applications with a higher level of confidence.</p> Allan E. Botuyan Glen A. Lorenzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 18 2