Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst <div id="panel-7268-2-0-0" class="so-panel widget widget_heading panel-first-child" data-index="3"> <div class="thim-widget-heading thim-widget-heading-base"> <div class="sc_heading text-center"><center><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong><center></center></center></div> </div> </div> <div id="panel-7268-2-0-1" class="so-panel widget widget_sow-editor panel-last-child" data-index="4"> <div class="so-widget-sow-editor so-widget-sow-editor-base"> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Cabahug.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Editor-in-Chief</strong><br><strong>Ruel R. Cabahug, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Maglaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Archie B. Maglaya, Dr. Tech.</strong><br>De La Salle University<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Chambers.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Therese Chambers, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Technology<br>Jamaica</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Yassin.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mohamed Fathy Yassin, Ph.D.</strong><br>Kuwait University<br>Kuwait</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Oloke.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David A. Oloke, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Metillo.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ephrime B. Metillo, Ph.D.</strong><br>Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology<br>Philippines</td> <td> <p><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Reyes.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Rosula SJ Reyes, Ph.D.</strong><br>Ateneo de Manila University<br>Philippines</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Edwards.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David J. Edwards, Ph.D.</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Hjorth.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Peder Hjorth, Ph.D.</strong><br>Lund Institute of Technology-Lund University<br>Lund, Sweden</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Mgaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Yunus D. Mgaya, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Dar es Salaam<br>Tanzania</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Murad.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Putra Malaysia<br>Malaysia</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Albina.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dionel O. Albina, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Canencia_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Oliva P. Canencia, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Robson.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mark G. Robson, Ph.D.</strong><br>The State University of New Jersey<br>United States of America</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Bergado.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dennes T. Bergado, Ph.D.</strong><br>Asian Institute of Technology<br>Thailand</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Cultura.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ambrosio B. Cultura, II, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Parn.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Erika Pärn</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Khatib.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Jamal Khatib, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Nwagboso_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Christopher O. Nwagboso, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Raheem_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Shehata&nbsp;Eldabie&nbsp;A. Raheem, Dr.Eng.</strong><br>Assiut University<br>Egypt</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Gogi_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Muhammad D. Gogi, Ph.D.</strong>&nbsp;<br>University of Agriculture, Faisalabad<br>Pakistan</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </div> University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines en-US Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology 2244-0410 Land Cover Change Detection and Analysis of Mts. Palay-Palay Mataas-Na-Gulod Protected Landscape, Philippines using Satellite Imagery https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1507 <p><em>Several studies have already proven the existence of unsustainable human activities or disturbances assumed to cause land cover change on the Mts. Palay-Palay Mataas-Na-Gulod Protected Landscape (MPPMNGPL)in the Philippines. However, there is a dearth of published works on how these disturbances affect the different land cover classes in this protected landscape. This study aimed to help fill such information gap by investigating the extent of land cover changes and potentially disturbed forest areas inside the MPPMNGPL. Using geographic information system and remote sensing, classified maps were produced from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 images through supervised classification. The study described the land cover types and land cover changes in the area from 2015 to 2021 and identified potentially disturbed forest areas using the normalized difference moisture index (NDMI). The land cover classes identified in the area included forest, grassland, built-up, barren land and water. From 2015 to 2021, the largest land cover change came from the 510.92 ha of forest area in Ternate that turned into a grassland area as reflected in the NDMI result – an indicator of potential forest disturbance. Change detection showed that from 2015 to 2021, the grassland area had an increase of +14.05%, while the forest area had a decrease of -13.8%. Results showed that forest is still the most dominant land cover class in the protected landscape. Further studies and ground validation must be conducted to determine the specific causes of the land cover changes.</em></p> Mitsui Chin Sen A. Yu Jan Joseph V. Dida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Fragmentation Analysis of Capisaan Surface Karst Landscape through Changes in Land Use and Land Cover using FRAGSTATS https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1508 <p><em>Changes in land cover mainly brought by humans could alter how landscapes function, which has an impact on the variety and health of the local biota. This study examined the fragmentation shifts of the Capisaan Cave System surface landscape by looking at changes in land use and land cover using Landsat images, ArcGIS and Google Earth imageries to generate classified land covers for the years 2001, 2005, 2010, 2016 and 2019. Fragmentation was analyzed through FRAGSTATS with forest; shrubland and orchard (SO); and agriculture and clearing (AC) as class types. Results showed that the most significant change in the landscape was in the year 2010 with AC significantly increasing its area and aggregation causing other class types to exhibit more fragmentation. Forest and SO covers displayed huge losses indicated by decreased class area and average size of patches accompanied by a more subdivided landscape shown by their increased number of patches. Although forest and SO slightly recovered in the class area in 2016, values were far from recovering to 2001 values. FRAGSTATS data suggest lowering biodiversity values and paying importance to reserve size in the maintenance of species diversity. The edge effect as a result of class and landscape fragmentation in forest vegetation might have been reduced at the landscape level as indicated by the reduced fractal dimension, as well as sustaining patch cohesion and increased clumpiness. However, abatement of edge effect could be easily limited and reversed if the reduction of the total area of forest available in the landscape continues.</em></p> Jayson Q. Caranza Margaret M. Calderon Rico C. Ancog Myrna G. Carandang Carmelita M. Rebancos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Building the Waray-waray Neural Language Model using Recurrent Neural Network https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1509 <p><em>In the Philippines, language modeling is challenging since most of its languages are low-resourced. Tagalog and Cebuano are the only languages present in machine translation platforms like Google Translate; Winaray, a language spoken in the Eastern Visayas region, is inexistent. Hence, this study developed a Winaray language model that could be used in any natural language processing-related tasks. The text corpus used in creating the model was scrapped from the web (religious and local news websites, and Wikipedia) containing Winaray sentences. The model was trained using an encoder-decoder recurrent neural network with four sequential layers and 100 hidden neurons. The text prediction accuracy of the model reached 76.17%. The model was manually evaluated based on its text-generated sentences using linguistic quality dimensions such as grammaticality, non-redundancy, focus, structure and coherence. Results of manual evaluation showed a promising result as the linguistic quality reached 3.66 (acceptable); however, training data must be improved in terms of size with the addition of texts in various text genres.</em></p> Fernando E. Quiroz, Jr. Chona B. Sabinay Jeneffer A. Sabonsolin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 A New Extension of the Inverse Paralogistic Distribution using Gamma Generator with Application https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1519 <p><em>This study proposed a three-parameter model called the gamma inverse paralogistic (GiPL) distribution model. The probability density and cumulative distribution functions were presented together with the quantile function. Properties such as measures of reliability, the kth raw moment and moment-generating function, partial moments, order statistics, log-likelihood functions for maximum likelihood estimations, Renyi entropy and the ordering of random variables were provided. To test the performance of the parameters, a simulation study was conducted. The simulation result was assessed using the mean, bias and root mean square errors. Finally, the data set on the number of COVID-19-infected individuals per age was used to apply the model and compared with various recently developed distribution models. Results showed the superiority of the GiPL distribution model over these models.</em></p> Angelo E. Marasigan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Enhancing Detection of Microcalcifications using FADHECAL for Early Stage Breast Cancer https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1511 <p><em>Microcalcifications (MCCs) are reliable early signs of breast cancer. However, the small size of calcifications and low radiation factors used in digital mammograms cause low and poor quality mammogram images in detecting MCCs. This paper presents an image enhancement technique called Fuzzy Anisotropic Diffusion Histogram Equalization Contrast Adaptive Limited (FADHECAL) to enhance the details of MCCs in mammogram images by reducing the image noise while conserving contrast and brightness. A total of 23 mammogram images with MCCs were retrieved from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society’s database. The enhancement performance of FADHECAL was compared with Recursive Mean-Separate Histogram Equalization, Histogram Equalization and Fuzzy Clipped Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization. Image quality measurement tools of absolute mean brightness error (AMBE), structural similarity index measure (SSIM) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) were used. The results showed that FADHECAL had the most superior results among other enhancement techniques, with 6.302 of AMBE, 20.453 of PSNR and 0.851 of SSIM. The proposed FADHECAL exhibited a high accuracy of 91.30% for the detection of MCCs. Hence, FADHECAL can be used as an ideal tool for identifying MCCs in early-stage breast cancer.</em></p> Saifullah H. Suradi Kamarul A. Abdullah Nor A. Mat Isa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Performance of Various Fuels: Gasoline, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Biogas from Agricultural Biomass Waste in a Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1512 <p><em>The Philippines is an agricultural country with massive agricultural waste. The Biofuels Law (Republic Act 9367) aims to minimize the dependence on fossil fuels and encouraged the use of bio-based fuel sources as an alternative fuel in rural areas where farming is the only source of income, and energy is scarce. Biogas is a renewable energy carrier consisting of methane and carbon dioxide mixture. Because of its improved mixing ability with air, clean-burning nature and high-octane number that resists knocking, biogas is an excellent alternative source of energy for internal combustion engines. The single-cylinder two-stroke spark-ignition (43 cm<sup>3</sup>) was designed to be fed with a variety of fuel in order to assess engine performance parameters such as brake power, brake speed, brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency at different throttling positions (low- and high-load throttle). This study evaluated the engine performance of biogas (cow, swine and cow-swine manure), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline with two-stroke engine oil (2T) in a dynamometer without modifying the compression ratio. To optimize its use as a fuel for power generation, biogas was purified using hydrogen sulfide adsorption and carbon dioxide absorption. The results showed that biogas fuel from swine manure generated the highest electrical power load of 761 W with a methane concentration of 51% and a BSFC of 1.4 kg/kW-h. The LPG achieved the highest engine speed at 14,700 rpm with 549 W. In conclusion, the purified biogas fuel can be used in a small-scale internal combustion engine.</em></p> Dianne Mae M. Asiñero Antonio-Abdu Sami M. Magomnang Leonel L. Pabilona ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Prevalence of Streptococci spp. and Unexpected Non-Streptococci Strains Associated with Bovine Mastitis Infection in Dairy Cattle in Region IV-A, Philippines https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1513 <p><em>Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory response of the udder tissue in the mammary gland caused by microbial infections. Streptococcus spp. is among the most prevalent mastitis-inducing etiological agents. Thus, this study intended to isolate and evaluate the prevalence of Streptococci in dairy cattle infected with clinical mastitis in Region IV-A, Philippines. Edward Agar medium with 6% defibrinated sheep blood was employed as a selective medium. The bacterial isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Remarkably, out of 98 isolates, only 26.5% belonged to the genus Streptococcus despite the use of a Streptococci-specific medium. Five Streptococci species and 22 non-Streptococci species were identified. The most prevalent species were S. uberis (prevalence rate: 11.2%). The antimicrobial resistance profiling also revealed that S. agalactiae exhibited resistance to all antimicrobials used, while S. bovis showed hyper-resistance to five out of seven antibiotics. Surprisingly, most of the non-streptococcal isolates exhibited hyper-resistance to multiple antibiotics. For instance, Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance against all antimicrobials. Proteus and Providencia isolates exhibited resistance against six out of seven antibiotics. Strong hemolytic activity was also observed in Bacillus subtilis. The detection of diverse species of microorganisms causing mastitis is significant to the dairy industry as distinct pathogens may entail different risks and necessitate specific treatments, primarily in terms of the antimicrobials that will be utilized to cure the infection. Application of inappropriate antibiotics might unduly expose the udder microbial flora to antimicrobials, increasing the establishment of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which is a severe hazard to animal and human health.</em></p> Amily E. Ancuelo Rodney H. Perez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Utilization of Forage Crops as an Effective and Eco-friendly Method for Weed Growth Control and Distribution in an Immature Rubber Plantation https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1514 <p><em>Rubber plantation, especially in the immature phase, is usually infested by various local weed species in the inter-row spaces of the rubber trees. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of weed species and the growth and yield of forage crops for weed control and management in an immature rubber plantation. The field study was conducted with four treatments of forage crops. The first treatment was a control plot in which local weeds were growing naturally without forage crops. The plot was compared with the other three immature plots wherein native tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compressus), native whip grass (Hemarthria compressa) and high productive yield ruzi grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were planted, respectively, in the inter-row of the rubber trees. The study period was split into four seasons: S<sub>0</sub> – January to June 2016; S<sub>1</sub> – July to September 2016; S<sub>2</sub> – October to December 2016; and S<sub>3</sub> – January to March 2017. Results showed that three families of narrow-leaf and nine families of broad-leaf weeds were found in the study area. A large number of common weed families were observed more in the S<sub>3</sub> than those in other seasons. Moreover, all forage crops were effective in suppressing weeds, with ruzi grass demonstrating the highest level of competitiveness and yield among the native forage crops reaching 1.50 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> in the S<sub>3</sub>. Therefore, implementing an indirect weed control approach using forage crops in rubber plantations could serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical herbicides.</em></p> Rawee Chiarawipa Pornthep Teerawattanapong Pin Chanjula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Sustainable Management for Spiralling Whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infesting Guava and Its Effects on the Natural Enemies’ Complex https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1515 <p><em>The spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most notorious insect pests among tropical fruits and vegetables. A common pest management technique is the application of chemical insecticides. However, this has led to environmental degradation, natural enemy reduction, development of pesticide resistance and increased cost of production. This study, therefore, evaluated the efficacy of a sustainable and eco-friendly management strategy against the spiralling whitefly infesting guava (Psidium guajava L). The experiment was carried out with seven treatments replicated five times following the randomized complete block design. The treatments were negative control (T1), 0.8% soybean oil (T2), 1.6% liquid dishwashing (T3), 1.6% neem oil (T4), 0.4% soybean oil + 0.8% liquid dishwashing (T5), 0.8% neem oil + 0.8% liquid dishwashing (T6) and chemical control (Thiamethoxam 25 WG at 2g/L<sup>-1</sup>) (T7). Results showed that 1.6% liquid dishwashing was superior among treatments against the 1<sup>st</sup>, 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> nymphal instars with an average mortality of 84.28, 85.22 and 81.81%, respectively. Application of 0.8% soybean oil showed the highest efficacy against the eggs, 4<sup>th</sup> instar and adult population with an average mortality of 75.50, 81.36 and 93.50%, respectively. Application of these treatments showed no adverse effects on the natural enemies’ complex associated with guava. Integration of other eco-friendly pest management strategies against the invasive spiralling whitefly is recommended for future research.</em></p> Karl Fritze S. Sampiano Lira May A. Sibongga Fernan Rhean A. Ramos Larry V. Aceres ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Productivity of ‘Saba’ Banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana) as influenced by Different Levels of NPK Fertilizer under Jasaan Soil Series https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1516 <p><em>‘Saba’ (Musa acuminata x balbisiana) is the second most grown banana in the Philippines. With the banana’s increasing demand and wider market both locally and abroad, growers need to advance and sustain farm efficiency. Among the various factors in production, plant nutrition is one of the key components for higher productivity. Hence, a field study was conducted in Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines to evaluate the effects of NPK fertilizer on the banana’s productivity under the Jasaan Soil Series – a major soil dominating Claveria. In addition to T1 (no NPK), there were four varying levels of NPK fertilizer applied as treatments, namely T2 (N<sub>90</sub>-P<sub>30</sub>-K<sub>120</sub>), T3 (N<sub>135</sub>-P<sub>60</sub>-K1<sub>80</sub>), T4 (N<sub>180</sub>-P<sub>120</sub>-K<sub>360</sub>) and T5 (N<sub>270</sub>-P<sub>180</sub>-K<sub>540</sub>). The results showed that T3 produced a significant difference in base girth in the 11th month and one-third girth in the 7th month, while T5 recorded the most number of suckers in the 12th, 13th and 14th months from planting. The highest level of NPK (T5) influenced the total bunch weight with 28.87 kg and yield (10.98 t/ha), while T3 obtained a significant difference in the diameter of the finger (16.04 cm). T1 showed the highest return on investment (2.03%); however, the highest level of NPK prevailed with the highest yield among all the other treatments on the main crop. Related studies are suggested to verify the sustainability of NPK fertilizer on the succeeding ratoons.</em></p> Janes M. Ohagan Leonie Love A. Harnaiz Cyril John C. Nagal Renante D. Taylaran Apolinario B. Gonzaga, Jr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 Location Analysis of Fire Stations in Cagayan de Oro City using Minimum Impedance (P-Median Problem) and Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP) with Q-Coverage Requirement Approaches https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1517 <p><em>This study aimed to address the problem of the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) in determining the strategic locations of the fire stations in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines to provide a fast and timely response using the facility location problem (FLP). This study compared two FLP models, namely minimum impedance and the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal number and the respective best locations of the fire stations without relocation. In addition, a set of adopted performance criteria was employed to evaluate which model fitted the problem. In the integration of the Q-coverage requirement, results identified the backup fire stations of each barangay (village) if the primary fire station is unavailable or responding to other demands. The results revealed that MCLP performed better than the minimum impedance across the average travel distances of 1.19, 3.43, and 4.44 km for Q values 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Moreover, MCLP outperformed each of the three criteria for all of the Q values. Thus, the MCLP provided an efficient application for deciding on the locations of fire stations to minimize the travel distance between demand, primary and backup fire stations, thereby fulfilling its mandate of protecting communities from destructive fires and other emergencies.</em></p> Altea S. Labita Rhoda A. Namoco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1 An Investigation on the Compressive Strength of Concrete with Rice Husk Ash as Cement Replacement and Addition of Chemical Admixtures https://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/1518 <p><em>Rice husk ash (RHA) is a renewable agricultural by-product from rice milling that is abundantly available in rice-producing countries like the Philippines. It has the highest proportion of silica content among all plant residues. This study utilized RHA as a cement replacement with the addition of chemical admixture. An investigation of the influence of RHA and accelerating admixture on the compressive strength of concrete was conducted. A volumetric method concrete mix design was used with a 0.56 water-cement ratio. A 10% RHA partial cement replacement with chemical admixture variations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% was utilized. Cylindrical samples measuring 150 x 300 mm were tested for compressive strength at curing ages of 7, 14 and 28 days. The results of the study revealed that the optimum increase of compressive strength of 9.8% against the control concrete mix was achieved when a concrete mix of 10% RHA partial cement replacement was added with 1.5% of admixture. With a compression test result of 2,353 psi, the said mixture could be used for secondary applications such as flooring according to the American Concrete Institute M-15 code and for non-structural concrete such as concrete for sidewalks, borders and filling.</em></p> Aniceto C. Neri Jr. Israel A. Baguhin Ruel R. Cabahug ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-23 2023-06-23 21 1