Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst <div id="panel-7268-2-0-0" class="so-panel widget widget_heading panel-first-child" data-index="3"> <div class="thim-widget-heading thim-widget-heading-base"> <div class="sc_heading text-center"><center><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong><center></center></center></div> </div> </div> <div id="panel-7268-2-0-1" class="so-panel widget widget_sow-editor panel-last-child" data-index="4"> <div class="so-widget-sow-editor so-widget-sow-editor-base"> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Cabahug.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Editor-in-Chief</strong><br><strong>Ruel R. Cabahug, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Maglaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Archie B. Maglaya, Dr. Tech.</strong><br>De La Salle University<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Chambers.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Therese Chambers, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Technology<br>Jamaica</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Yassin.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mohamed Fathy Yassin, Ph.D.</strong><br>Kuwait University<br>Kuwait</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Oloke.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David A. Oloke, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Metillo.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ephrime B. Metillo, Ph.D.</strong><br>Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology<br>Philippines</td> <td> <p><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Reyes.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Rosula SJ Reyes, Ph.D.</strong><br>Ateneo de Manila University<br>Philippines</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Edwards.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David J. Edwards, Ph.D.</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Hjorth.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Peder Hjorth, Ph.D.</strong><br>Lund Institute of Technology-Lund University<br>Lund, Sweden</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Mgaya.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Yunus D. Mgaya, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Dar es Salaam<br>Tanzania</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Murad.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Putra Malaysia<br>Malaysia</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Albina.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dionel O. Albina, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Canencia_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Oliva P. Canencia, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Robson.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mark G. Robson, Ph.D.</strong><br>The State University of New Jersey<br>United States of America</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Bergado.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dennes T. Bergado, Ph.D.</strong><br>Asian Institute of Technology<br>Thailand</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Cultura.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ambrosio B. Cultura, II, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Parn.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Erika Pärn</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="http://cdo.ustp.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Khatib.jpg" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Jamal Khatib, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Nwagboso_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Christopher O. Nwagboso, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Raheem_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Shehata&nbsp;Eldabie&nbsp;A. Raheem, Dr.Eng.</strong><br>Assiut University<br>Egypt</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Gogi_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Muhammad D. Gogi, Ph.D.</strong>&nbsp;<br>University of Agriculture, Faisalabad<br>Pakistan</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </div> en-US mjst@ustp.edu.ph (Ruel R. Cabahug, Ph.D.) mjst@ustp.edu.ph (Monabel May A. Birao) Sat, 07 Dec 2019 06:39:28 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Assessment of Lactobacillus paracasei F2I2 as a Possible Biopreservative for Raw Pork http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/255 <p>Raw meats sold in the public market at ambient temperature (25 C) are prone to contamination with foodborne pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria with antimicrobial properties can be used as an economical approach in preserving raw meat. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Lactobacillus paracasei F2I2 (LP) as a possible biopreservative for raw pork under laboratory and typical public market conditions. Spraying, rinsing, and dipping were tested as means of applying the LP suspension, with spraying as the most efficient method. LP-sprayed and untreated meat were monitored for 6 hours (h) under the prevailing market conditions. Microbiological counts, cooking qualities, and physicochemical parameters were evaluated. Roasted pork samples were subjected to a preference ranking test. Results showed that the application of LP significantly (p &lt; 0.05) reduced the rate of increase of staphylococci in raw pork after 8 h at laboratory conditions. The treatment also significantly (p &lt; 0.05) retarded the growth of aerobic bacteria and coliforms after 3 and 6 h, respectively, under public market conditions. No negative effect on the meat cooking qualities and degree of preference was observed. However, due to the initially high levels of coliform (&gt;3.29 log CFU/g) and staphylococcal (&gt;3.48 log CFU/g) counts posing considerable threats to food safety, the effect on reduction was not sufficient to keep the meat within acceptable microbiological standards. Though results indicated that LP has been shown to have potential as biopreservative for raw pork, it cannot be used as a remedial intervention for poor microbiological quality.</p> Kriza Faye A. Calumba, Virginia P. Obsioma, Chris Anthony E. Jawa, Derek Gio S. Ong ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/255 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Investigation of Industrial Noise Intrusion in the Residential Areas as an Effect of Settlement Pattern and Land Use Planning http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/256 <p>This study investigated the intrusion level of industrial noise from five factories in 40 surrounding residences in Anambra state, Nigeria as an effect of settlement pattern and land use planning. Three categories of measurements were considered: engagement of electric power generators, job operation dependency on the national on-grid connection – Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), and off-work hours. All measurements were conducted in compliance with the Nigerian Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency using a digital sound level meter. A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) for the measured noise levels at each assessed residence was evaluated. The result showed the following LAeq value ranges: 63.2 - 78.7 dBA for factory operations during generator use; 44.5 - 62.9 dBA for PHCN use; and 41.1 - 59.7 dBA for off-work hours. Based on the recommendations from the World Health Organization and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development for acceptable noise levels in residential areas, the analysis of the data showed that significant unacceptable noise levels were present only during generator use, leading to issues of temporal hearing impairment and moderate to serious levels of annoyance. The multiple independent t-tests analyses of the LAeq categories disclosed p &lt; 0.05 – significant in all cases. This study concluded that clustered and intermixed development of the residences and industries in the same area can create significant noise hazards for the residential areas.</p> Adinife Patrick Azodo, Christian Onwubalili, Tochukwu Canice Mezue ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/256 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Room-Temperature Synthesis of Aryl-Substituted Benzimidazoles and their Toxicity against Artemia salina http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/257 <p>Benzimidazoles are known to display pharmacological uses with a wide range of noticeable importance, such as antifungal, antiviral, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial. Thus, successful syntheses of benzimidazole containing compounds have been the primary goal of researchers and organic chemists in the medical industry and drug discovery. ‘Green chemistry’ approach to developing drug leads has been widely encouraged since the past decades. In this study, the ‘green chemistry’ approach in synthesizing benzimidazole derivatives was successfully utilized to yield compounds at room temperature using ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3/SiO2) as the catalyst and then subjected to toxicity assay against Artemia salina. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral analyses of the synthesized compounds confirmed the structures of the synthesized benzimidazole derivatives. Moreover, the method gave satisfactory yields of about 22.62- 51.94%. The toxicity results revealed a wide range varied from mild to highly toxic (&lt;10.00 ppm - 968.72 ppm) at chronic levels, suggesting a potential application of synthesized compounds in the pharmacological industry. &gt;&lt;10.00 ppm - 968.72 ppm) at chronic levels, suggesting a potential application of synthesized compounds in the pharmacological industry.</p> Jerson E. Lapetaje, Evelyn C. Creencia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/257 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Modelling Domestic Water Demand and Management Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making Technique http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/274 <p>Sustainable water consumption is considered as one of the key factors for the successful management and development of every institution. In selecting the most appropriate forecasting technique for an institution, it is necessary to consider not only the planning needs but also the balance of the benefits arising from adopting a more sophisticated technique against the cost of data acquisition and analysis. However, there is a lack of an analytical tool that matches the needs and capability of the institution in dealing with multifaceted problems based on the selected criteria for water management. In this premise, this study aims to provide an appropriate prediction model in the short and midterm of water demand forecasting based on institution-specific criteria. There were two steps used to perform decision making in selecting the water demand forecasting. First, a multi-criteria decision making technique was applied to obtain weights in each criterion and was used in all models. Second, each model utilized a 10-fold cross-validation to evaluate prediction models by dividing the dataset into a training and a test set. Mean absolute percentage error was used to assess the performance of the models. Based on the result, the support vector machine was the most preferred model. In the short-term water demand forecasting, it only used one variable to predict the water demand. The most preferred model was autoregressive integrated moving average.</p> Junar A. Landicho, Arnon Saengarunwong, Vatcharaporn Esichaikul ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/274 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 08:09:41 +0000 Effect of Hot Water Treatment and Evaporative Cooling on Some Postharvest Characteristics of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. ‘Sweet Cayenne’) http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/260 <p style="text-align: justify;">Sweet pepper is an economically important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated in many countries. However, sweet pepper incurs considerable postharvest losses due to its high perishability as manifested by shriveling and disease development. This study evaluated the effects of hot water spray treatment (55 °C) and evaporative cooling (25.6±1.31 °C, 98.87±2.07% relative humidity [RH]) as storage option on some physico-chemical attributes of ‘Sweet Cayenne’ sweet pepper. The evaporative cooler (EC) provided a microclimate with 27.96% higher RH and a temperature that was 0.41 °C lower compared to ambient storage conditions. Temperature reduction was very slight but the conditions in the EC resulted in reduced weight loss and shriveling, better visual quality, delayed color development and generally longer period of acceptable quality compared to the control fruit stored in ambient. Hot water treatment alone did not pose any significant effect in maintaining the quality of sweet pepper but tended to slightly maintain quality when combined with storage in the EC. Total soluble solids were affected only at nine days after treatment. Results showed the potential of evaporative cooling in maintaining the postharvest quality of sweet pepper and extending its shelf life by three days compared to storage in ambient conditions. The EC design may be improved to prevent surface moisture in the stored produce in order to reduce decay.</p> Anna Maria Carmela C. Majomot, Leizel B. Secretaria, Emma Ruth V. Bayogan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/260 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development of a Ceramic Cassava Peeling-and-Washing Machine http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/261 <p>Manual peeling of cassava is still practiced by the cassava processors due to high mechanical damage of existing cassava peelers. The aim of this study was to develop a cassava peeling-and-washing machine using ceramic mixture as the abrasive surface. The developed machine performs two operations concurrently – peeling and washing. The peeling surface was cast with ceramic mixture, which composed of ceramic, sand and cement (1:3:1). The machine was driven by a 10-hp, 3-phase motor operating at 900 rpm with a pulley ratio of 1:5 and belt. The effect of varying weight capacity of cassava tubers per batch on the performance efficiency of the machine was also studied. It was observed that as the weight of cassava tubers fed into the machine (3.5 to 15.5 kg) increased, the peeling efficiency, quality of performance, and throughput capacity increased, whereas mechanical damage and peel retention decreased. On the contrary, as the weight of tubers in the machine decreased, the peeling efficiency, quality of performance, and throughput capacity decreased while mechanical damage and peel retention increased. Understanding the effect of cassava tubers fed per batch by processors was deemed useful for high performance efficiency during usage of the developed machine.</p> Adeniyi T. Olayanju, Moses O. Isaac, Clinton E. Okonkwo, Adewumi S. Alake, Muyiwa G. Friday ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/261 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Carbon Storage and Sequestration Potential of Urban Trees in Cebu City, Philippines http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/262 <p>This research was conducted as a baseline study to estimate carbon density and gross sequestration rate of trees in urban areas of Cebu City, Philippines. A total of 16 sampling plots with an area of 500 m2 were established in the north and south districts. All trees inside the plot were identified and measured. Tree biomass is the adjusted sum of aboveground biomass (AGB) using Chave’s improved allometric equation and root biomass as 0.26 ratio inferred from the AGB. Pearson's correlation was performed to examine the relationship between wood density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and tree biomass. Results showed that urban tree community had low diversity and dominated by Swietenia spp., Gmelina arborea, and Pterocarpus indicus Willd. (narra). Tree biomass density and stored carbon were 195.13 Mg/ha and 87.81 Mg C/ha, respectively, lower than in primary growth and secondary forest but relatively similar to other cities in the world. Tree biomass was significantly correlated (r=0.84; p value=0.00) with DBH and (r=0.54; p value=0.00) with height but not with wood density. Gross carbon sequestration was at 9.45 Mg C/ha/yr. Using this value, it is projected that the trees at the vegetated urban areas of Cebu City can sequester approximately 14,807 Mg of carbon annually, which may be very low compared to the carbon emission of the city. Aside from source reduction and offsite carbon sequestration, it is suggested that native species such as P. indicus Willd. be given priority for the greening of Cebu City.</p> Nimfa R. Pansit ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/262 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Vase Life of Cut Torch Ginger (Etlingera elatior) Inflorescences as Influenced by Stem Length http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/263 <p>Effective postharvest handling techniques increase the vase life of tropical cut flowers and reduce flower loss. The effects of different stem lengths (35, 50, and 65 cm) soaked in distilled water or 200 mg L -1 6-benzyladenine (BA) for 30 min on the visual quality, glossiness, days to additional browning of the bract, water uptake, vase life, and color (L* - lightness, a* - red/green coordinate, b* - yellow/blue coordinate) of 75% mature cut torch ginger inflorescences were assessed. Results showed that water uptake decreased by the end of vase life at four to five days as did weight and a*. Regardless of stem length and BA, inflorescences exhibited gloss loss, reduction in L* b*, and increased bract browning resulting in less acceptable visual quality. At four days after treatment, samples with longer stem lengths (50 and 65 cm) showed slower gloss loss and higher water uptake than the short stemmed (35 cm) inflorescences. Under ambient conditions (26.81±0.31 °C and 71.47±4.64% RH), cut torch gingers with longer stems (65 cm) showed a vase life that was better than the control inflorescences by 18.7%. BA did not influence the postharvest quality and vase life of the inflorescences.</p> Rebekah Grace C. Choresca, Leizel B. Secretaria, Emma Ruth V. Bayogan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/263 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Determinants Using Empirical Datasets in the Southeast Asian Region http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/264 <p>Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the ten-member countries of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) were determined using panel data analysis. The longitudinal data were subjected to sensitivity analysis, multiple correlation, and regression analyses to examine statistical correlation among the identified variables. The findings revealed that the urban population is significantly associated with GHG emissions mostly induced by industrial development. Meanwhile, forest cover and population density among the member countries statistically influenced GHG emissions. Likewise, the urban population showed direct bearing with GHG emission while access to clean fuels, forest cover and population density inversely correlate with GHG emissions. In large part, forest cover influenced the dynamic condition of GHG emissions based on sensitivity analysis. The resulting regression model further confirmed that forest cover essentially contributed to the minimizing effect of GHG emissions. However, the model explained only 37.15% of the deviance in the prediction of total GHG. In conclusion, forest cover programs in the member countries played as the primary determinant of GHG emissions, which are limited to the carrying capacity of the forest lands. Nonetheless, other determinants should not be neglected for they still contribute to the increase of GHG emission level. To reduce the level of GHG emissions, ASEAN governments must formulate policies and programs that favor access to fuels and people awareness on reforestation initiatives. Detrimental human activities related to GHG emissions in the urban area have to be reduced in order to curtail GHG emissions.</p> Juvyneil E. Cartel, Evelyn A. Cardoso ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/264 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Five Common Philippine Medicinal Plants Using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/265 <p>A wide variety of plants in the Philippines are used to address several medical ailments; however, many of which have not yet undergone thorough pharmacological studies. The problem on the possible side effects caused by these medicinal preparations has, therefore, increased the interest in validating their safety for human use. The present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of five common local medicinal plants. Annona muricata L., Cymbopogon citratus DC., Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff, Jatropha curcas L., and Piper betle L. were selected and subjected to crude aqueous leaf extraction. Extracts were then investigated for cytotoxicity potential using brine shrimp lethality assay. The experiment resulted in median lethal time (LT50) values ranging between 21.23 to 24.06 hours. In addition, all these extracts had median lethal concentrations (LC50) lower than 1.00 mg/mL, suggesting the presence of cytotoxic constituents that could further be investigated both for safety and for anticancer potential.</p> Lloyd O. Balinado, Merab A. Chan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/265 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation on Load-Bearing Concrete Hollow Block Reinforced with Coconut Coir Fiber http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/266 <p>The aim of this study is to produce a load-bearing concrete hollow block (CHB) with pre-treated coconut fiber passing the required minimum compressive strength. The CHB was added with 1, 2 and 3% pre-treated coconut coir fibers, by weight of cement, at varying coconut fiber lengths of 3, 4.5 and 6 cm during the production. Class AA concrete mixture of 1:1.5:3 is used with a water-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.51. There were three representative samples taken at each percentage (1, 2 and 3%) of pre-treated coconut coir fibers added in every 3, 4.5 and 6 cm length and a total of 30 samples were produced for the investigation process. The compressive strengths of loadbearing CHBs were then taken using the universal testing machine and results showed that 2% coconut coir fiber of 4.5 cm fiber length is significantly different from 1 and 3% coconut coir fiber. Results revealed that CHB with 2% coconut fibers obtained the optimum compressive strength compared to the 1 and 3% CHB samples. The study concluded that coconut fiber reinforced load-bearing CHBs can be used for Type N Mortar for the general purpose of above grade applications where normal loading occurs such as reinforced interior and exterior load-bearing walls.</p> Israel A. Baguhin, Ruel R. Cabahug ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/266 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Weed Density and Diversity under Two Weed Management Practices in Sloping Lands of Banana Plantation in Davao City, Philippines http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/267 <p>Weed management in the slope farms of a banana plantation poses a challenge because the banana canopy provides a condition that allows weeds to proliferate, protecting fragile soil from erosion. If left uncontrolled, it could impair banana production. Manual weed removal disrupts soil structure that not only stimulates dormant seed germination but also increases soil erosion. Seedbanks, counts, dry weights, and diversity indices of broad-leaved weeds under two weed management systems (manual weeding and chemical weed control using cyclical application of paraquat and glyphosate) in a banana plantation were examined at two slope conditions: 15° and 25° inclination. Seedbanks at the start and six months after treatments yielded nine broad-leaved species of which three were dominant: Ageratum conyzoides, Bidens pilosa, and Cleome rutidosperma. While species diversity and seedling count from seedbanks were not significantly affected by weed management systems, the reduction in growth and abundance of the dominant species was achieved in chemical plots. Over ten regular observations in 13 months, there were consistently and significantly lower counts and dry weights of weeds in chemical plots than in manual plots. In addition, the shifts in weed population – from that dominated by noxious species to that composed of less noxious species – were achieved in chemical plots, which could have implications on the environment and the banana production. Regular monthly weeding can, within one year, reduce weed population to a level that could potentially impact soil erosion. To stabilize soil in sloping lands, weeding can be based on a threshold weed cover.</p> Richie Eve G. Ragas, Jhoanavi R. Mangubat, Eufemio T. Rasco, Jr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/267 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Native Chicken to Selected Saponin-Containing Herbs Extracts under Partially Ranged System http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/268 <p>Phytochemicals such as saponin and tannin may have harmful effects on animal nutrition, but they can also be capitalized to manipulate the physiological function of the animals. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of saponin-containing herbs extracts on the growth performance of native chicken in terms of feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and water intake. The study also assessed the anthelmintic potential and economic return of the different saponincontaining herbs extract in native chicken. The levels tested were 30 ml each of chili pepper, alugbati, and ginseng extracts per liter of water. Treatments were replicated three times and arranged through a randomized complete block design with age and weight as bases for blocking. Data collected were analyzed using the analysis of variance, and results were interpreted at 5% level of significance. Results showed that feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, gain in weight, and water intake were significantly affected by the various saponin-containing herbs extracts, and a similar pattern of differences was reflected on the fecal examination on the percent reduction of egg count. About 30 ml each of chili pepper, alugbati, and ginseng extracts were effective against gastrointestinal parasite control in native chicken. Moreover, supplementation of 30 ml ginseng extract gave the highest income over feed and supplement cost of Php 23.65. Therefore, chili pepper, alugbati, and ginseng extracts can be added to the drinking water of native chicken at 30 ml/L water to give a positive effect on growth, reduction of fecal egg count, and increased profit.</p> Jonathan P. Dela Vega, Maita Aban Gonzales ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/268 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of River Depth Profile and Historical Transects for the Estimation of Sedimentation and Flood Simulation http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/269 <p>Bathymetric data is needed to properly manage river systems. However, bathymetric data generation needsspecialized equipment, which may not always be available. Also, the ease of deployment and cost prevent its use on a regular, short to medium term basis. This study demonstrated a set of methodology that generated bathymetric data utilizing a raft and associated equipment setup. The observed mean depth of the river was 2.92 m (standard deviation: 0.84 m, n = 1981; range: 0.21 - 14.51 m). An estimation of the number of sediments lost and gained for a particular section of the river indicated a net loss of 0.48 m3m-2 . A flood simulation on a subsection of the river caused by a 2-, 4- and 6-meter water level increase resulted in 164, 211 and 245 hectares of flooded zones, respectively.</p> Edgar Allan C. Po, Mark Alexis O. Sabines, Jan Taat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/269 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Delineation of Flood-Prone Areas in Data-Scarce Environment Using Linear Binary Classifiers http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/270 <p>The knowledge and understanding of areas prone to flooding are critical in mitigating and reducing risks caused by extreme water events. In the Philippines, however, large scale riverine flooding still remains a huge challenge in many parts of the country as most river basins are still ungauged. This limitation has consequently led to data scarcity and deficiency and has prevented the application of comprehensive floodplain mapping techniques. This study aims to address such limitations by introducing a simplified method for the preliminary identification of flood exposed areas within a river system using geomorphic classifiers. The Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), a linear binary classification technique, is used in delineating flood-prone areas in a watershed within the Cagayan de Oro River Basin. The index used three morphological features – the drainage network, the contributing area, and the water level to perform the linear binary classification. Results of the study showed the potential of the GFI in delineating flood-prone areas in data-scarce environments particularly in the watershed of the Cagayan de Oro River.</p> Wendell D. Talampas, Dennis A. Tarepe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/270 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Motor-Operated Cassava Grater http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/271 <p>The motor-operated cassava grater was developed, fabricated and evaluated using locally available and low-cost materials for household-level processing. Peeled cassava tubers were grated at three various grating drum rotational speed determined by using three pulley diameters (5, 6 and 8 in) with an average speed of 1424.30 rpm, 1148.30 rpm, and 857.40 rpm, respectively. The cassava grater was run by 1.5-hp electric motor and its performance was evaluated in terms of grating capacity, grating efficiency, percentage loss and fineness modulus (FM). Each parameter was statistically analyzed using completely randomized design. The manual grating was also conducted in comparison to the fabricated machine. From the parameters tested, the 5-in diameter pulley with an average grating capacity of 283.26 kg/hr, grating efficiency of 91.56%, percentage loss of only 8.44% and FM of 3.38 is highly recommended.</p> Darlene U. Esteves, Guillermo P. Pantuhan, Michelle O. Serviñas, Jane S. Malasador ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/271 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Oryza sativa CL1 (Basmati 370) to Nostoc commune Vauch. as Fertilizer Supplement http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/272 <p>The study was conducted to determine the growth and yield response of Oryza sativa CL1 and the ideal rate of Nostoc commune to be applied as fertilizer supplement. Based on the result of the study, application of 3 g of N. commune + ½ recommended rate of inorganic fertilizer (RRIF) gave the best response among the treatments in terms of the plant height, number of tiller and harvest index. With respect to weight of 1000 grains and the days to flowering, application of 9 g of N. commune + ½ RRIF was the best treatment. Moreover, concerning the number of productive tillers, days to maturity, chlorophyll content, filled grain percentage per panicle, grain yield per hectare, harvest index and biomass application of full RRIF appeared desirable. Regarding the growth and yield parameters of CL1, application of full RRIF was recommended. However, there is a need to verify further the response of CL1 to the application of the different rate of N. commune + ½ RRIF, especially the 3 g of N. commune + ½ RRIF, for it can increase the yield through continuous application.</p> Ma. Koleen P. Buenaventura, Dionie S. Barrientos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://mjst.ustp.edu.ph/index.php/mjst/article/view/272 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000