Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology 2019-01-09T02:29:14+00:00 Ruel R. Cabahug, Ph.D. [email protected] Open Journal Systems <div id="panel-7268-2-0-0" class="so-panel widget widget_heading panel-first-child" data-index="3"> <div class="thim-widget-heading thim-widget-heading-base"> <div class="sc_heading text-center"><center><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong><center></center></center></div> </div> </div> <div id="panel-7268-2-0-1" class="so-panel widget widget_sow-editor panel-last-child" data-index="4"> <div class="so-widget-sow-editor so-widget-sow-editor-base"> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Cabahug.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Editor-in-Chief</strong><br><strong>Ruel R. Cabahug, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Archie B. Maglaya, Dr. Tech.</strong><br>De La Salle University<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Therese Chambers, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Technology<br>Jamaica</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mohamed Fathy Yassin, Ph.D.</strong><br>Kuwait University<br>Kuwait</td> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David A. Oloke, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ephrime B. Metillo, Ph.D.</strong><br>Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology<br>Philippines</td> <td> <p><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Rosula SJ Reyes, Ph.D.</strong><br>Ateneo de Manila University<br>Philippines</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>David J. Edwards, Ph.D.</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Peder Hjorth, Ph.D.</strong><br>Lund Institute of Technology-Lund University<br>Lund, Sweden</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Yunus D. Mgaya, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Dar es Salaam<br>Tanzania</td> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Putra Malaysia<br>Malaysia</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dionel O. Albina, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Canencia_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Oliva P. Canencia, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Mark G. Robson, Ph.D.</strong><br>The State University of New Jersey<br>United States of America</td> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Dennes T. Bergado, Ph.D.</strong><br>Asian Institute of Technology<br>Thailand</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Ambrosio B. Cultura, II, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines<br>Philippines</td> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Erika Pärn</strong><br>Birmingham City University<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="" alt="" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Jamal Khatib, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Nwagboso_2.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Christopher O. Nwagboso, Ph.D.</strong><br>University of Wolverhampton<br>United Kingdom</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Raheem_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Shehata&nbsp;Eldabie&nbsp;A. Raheem, Dr.Eng.</strong><br>Assiut University<br>Egypt</td> <td><img src="/public/site/images/mjst_admin/Dr._Gogi_.jpg" width="130" height="130"><br><strong>Muhammad D. Gogi, Ph.D.</strong>&nbsp;<br>University of Agriculture, Faisalabad<br>Pakistan</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </div> Enhancement of NSIC Rc 192 Seedling Growth by Soil-based and Carbonized Rice Hull (CRH)-based Actinomycete Inoculants 2018-12-28T08:52:56+00:00 Kassandra Jin B. Mariano [email protected] Ann Jhudeil C. Santos [email protected] Editha V. Evangelista [email protected] Jayvee A. Cruz [email protected] <p><em>A study was conducted to observe the effects of soil-based (SB) and carbonized rice hull (CRH)-based actinomycete inoculants on the seedling growth of rice variety NSIC Rc 192. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions using wet paper towels in petri dishes. The statistical design of the experiment was completely randomized (CRD) with three replicates per treatment. The actinomycete isolate, Streptomyces sp., used in the study was previously reported to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, and phosphatase. In this experiment, rice seeds were treated with soil-based and CRH-based actinomycete inoculants. Growth parameters such as shoot and root length and oven dry weight &nbsp;were measured 7 days after sowing (DAS). Inoculation with CRH-based and soil-based actinomycete inoculants significantly increased shoot length by 102.61% and 94.77%, respectively, relative to the uninoculated treatment at 7 DAS. Inoculation with CRH-based and soil-based actinomycete inoculants significantly increased root length by 113.24% and 98.53%, respectively, relative to the uninoculated treatment at 7 DAS. The highest shoot (4.5 mg) and root (3.5 mg) oven dry weight was observed at CRH-based inoculation while the lowest shoot (2.0 mg)&nbsp;</em><em>and root (0.5 mg) was obtained at the uninoculated control. Regardless of the carrier used, actinomycete isolate can enhance the growth of rice seedlings. Both CRH and soil-based actinomycete inoculants significantly increased the shoot and root length and oven dry weight of rice seedlings.</em></p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design, Fabrication and Testing of Cocoa Depodding Machine 2018-12-28T08:53:34+00:00 Murtala O. Iyanda [email protected] Elijah A. Alhassan [email protected] Timothy A. Adekanye [email protected] <p><em>Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop that serves numerous food purposes. Removing the seed from the pod, or depodding is key to its vast applications. In an attempt to ease the bottleneck in breaking the pods to release the seeds for utilization, a cocoa depodding machine was developed to efficiently depod various sizes of cocoa. Fabrication was done using locally available materials to achieve reduction in production cost, stress and drudgery attributed to the manual methods of depodding. The essential components of the depodding machine are the hopper, the depodding unit, the frame and the power unit. Its design and operation are based on&nbsp;</em><em>the engineering properties of the cocoa pod, and the machine utilizes impact and compression mechanism for depodding actions. Machine evaluation was conducted on four levels of speed resulting from different pulley diameter ratio (219, 278, 397 and 636 rpm) in order to establish the best operating speed for the machine. The results of which were 89.29%, 87.38%, 85.25% and 80.70% respectively. The best output of the depodding machine was obtained when operated at 219 rpm speed with a throughput capacity of 469.87 kg/h, a minimum bean damage of 10.71%, and a 2 hp electric motor as the prime mover.</em></p> 2018-12-28T04:59:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geometrical Solar Panel Reflectors Using Galvanized Iron Sheets 2018-12-28T08:54:11+00:00 Jun-Jun A. Obiso [email protected] Robert C. Milano [email protected] Ernesto O. Villanueva [email protected] Aplegrace M. Calunsag [email protected] <p><em>Solar panels are widely used in the Philippines to collect solar energy. To minimize deflection of sunrays on panels, reflectors are incorporated. The existing reflectors are the planar reflectors. Because of concerns in cost and availability, a need to find an alternative reflector arises. In this study, the galvanized iron (GI) sheets were used as reflectors attached in the four sides of the existing solar panels. The shapes of the reflectors as used in the experiments were rectangular, triangular, and parabolic. Experiment results have shown that for optimum performance, the tilt angle of the reflector with respect to the vertical axis of the panel must be 70° and the solar panel must be always perpendicular to the solar source. Any of the three reflector shapes can be used since there exists no significant difference on the output voltages at any time of the day. With the usage of the GI sheet as reflectors, the output voltage has increased up to 23.09% in average as compared to the set up with no reflector. The utilization of GI sheet as reflectors has advantages over the planar reflectors on costs and availability since GI sheets can be easily bought in any hardware store in the Philippines.</em></p> 2018-12-28T04:58:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Expert System for Automobile Repairs and Maintenance 2018-12-28T05:56:46+00:00 Adefemi A. Adekunle [email protected] Peter P. Ikubanni [email protected] Olayinka O. Agboola [email protected] <p>Most of the car owners have inadequate knowledge on detecting faults from symptoms manifested and developed from their vehicles. These faults require the presence of an auto mechanic. To aid this knowledge inadequacy and temporarily substitute the auto mechanic especially in times of their unavailability, this paper developed an expert system – a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. This system aids the car owners in repairing and maintaining their cars. It was designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge base which is represented primarily by if-then rules. The expert system was made using Microsoft Visual C# programming language as it is an object-oriented type and has supports for generics and functional programming paradigms. For easy interaction with the user, graphic user interface (GUI) of the system was created using window presentation framework (WPF) from Microsoft in order to achieve fluid and vector based on the interaction of the system with the user. During the process, this system worked accurately according to the various classes of fault presented to the programmer. Furthermore, this could save time and energy of car owners and human expert in diagnosing, repairing and maintaining their vehicles.</p> 2018-12-28T04:58:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Coastal Vulnerability Assessment: The Case of Davao del Norte, Philippines 2018-12-28T08:54:52+00:00 Marites D. Jocson [email protected] Silverio V. Magallon, Jr. [email protected] <p>Coastal vulnerability assessment is essential in formulating strategies to reduce adverse impacts of climate change. Thus, this study was conducted to help local government units (LGUs) and other concerned agencies and communities to identify priority areas for disaster risk reduction and management in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. It measures the degree of sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity of coastal resources in all coastal areas in the province using the Coastal Integrated Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CIVAT) adopted from Marine and Resources Foundation, Inc. (MERF). The study revealed that there were six natural disturbances of coastal areas. These include heavy rainfall, tropical cyclone, El Niño, flood, coastal erosion, and strong wind or habagat. Majority of the coastal areas were moderately exposed, sensitive, and adaptive to adverse impacts of natural hazards. In general, coastal areas in the province were moderately vulnerable to natural hazards Except for Barangay Dadatan in Island Garden City of Samal (IGCS), which was highly vulnerable. In terms of prioritization for disaster risk reduction and management interventions, barangays Tambo, Ballet, San Isidro, Tagpopangan, San Miguel, La Suerte Lapaz, Pangubatan, Poblacion Kaputian, Tagbaobo, Taba, JP Laurel, San Jose, Tagbay, Poblacion-Libertad, and Aumbay should highly be prioritized.</p> 2018-12-28T04:57:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphotectonic Characteristics of the Iponan River Watershed in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines 2019-01-09T02:29:14+00:00 Wendell D. Talampas [email protected] Ruel R. Cabahug [email protected] <p>&nbsp;<em>Using the Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) digital elevation model, morphometric parameters were derived and utilized in the morphotectonic analysis of the Iponan River&nbsp;</em><em>Watershed. Morphometric analysis of the area revealed that the watershed is in the early maturity of geological stage. Its mountain front sinuosity index indicates that portions of the watershed area are slightly and tectonically active. Other parameters suggest that the area is experiencing rapid uplift and undergoing ground tilting that may be influenced by tectonic activity. The presence of a tectonic line running through the extent of the Iponan River could be a potential source of tectonic activity and influence morphological processes in the watershed area. Its channel concavity suggests that the watershed has rapidly rising slopes as may be caused by the uplift. Overall, the Iponan River Watershed area is generally tectonically active and that its morphotectonic processes may be moderately controlled by tectonic activity.</em></p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Water Benchmark and Performance Assessment of an Agro-food Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Biophysicochemical Characterization Approach 2018-12-28T08:55:49+00:00 Nurudeen S. Lawal [email protected] Kola Ogedengbe [email protected] Victoria O. Anyiam [email protected] <p><em>The hazard posed by poorly treated effluent from agro-food treatment plant has been &nbsp;a growing concern to environmentalists and regulatory bodies. This study is aimed at benchmarking fresh water utilization and assessing the treatment efficiency of an agrofood wastewater treatment plant in Lagos, Nigeria based on biophysicochemical characterization. Water utilization analysis and benchmarking were initially conducted to determine areas with significant water saving potentials. Influent and effluent samples were collected daily for six months (September 2016 to February 2017) and analyzed for 25 biophysicochemical pollution indicators. Results were compared with Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) guidelines&nbsp;</em><em>for industrial effluent. Significant improvements were recorded for all the assessed biophysicochemical parameters. The treatment plant was adjudged satisfactory with all assessed parameters falling within permissible limits and average removal&nbsp;</em><em>efficiencies ranged from 4.78% to 96.9%. However, plant overloading resulting from high water intensity and inadequate plant monitoring accounted for the low removal efficiencies recorded for some parameters. Given the current performance, significant&nbsp;</em><em>improvements in areas such as freshwater management, routine plant monitoring and adjustment of hydraulic loading rates are necessary to optimize the plants’ operation&nbsp; in line with standard practice. &nbsp;</em></p> 2018-12-28T04:57:21+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physiological Efficiency of Corn-legumes Intercropping Systems under Conservation Agriculture Practice Systems (CAPS) in Northern Mindanao, Philippines 2018-12-28T08:56:18+00:00 Apolinario B. Gonzaga, Jr. [email protected] <p><em>Conservation Agriculture Practice Systems (CAPS) is a recent agronomic innovation that is tailor-fitted approach for successful adoption of conservation agriculture (CA). In this study, the influence of various CAPS in a corn-legumes systems on key&nbsp;</em><em>physiological parameters of corn such as leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation ratio (NAR), dry matter yield (DMY), harvest index (HI) and&nbsp; grain yield (GY) were evaluated at various crop stages (30, 60, 85 days after planting and at harvest) , in two&nbsp;</em><em>cropping seasons, respectively. Five corn-based cropping systems (CS), namely: CS1 </em>&nbsp;<em>(corn + Arachis pintoi </em><em>– </em><em>Corn + A. pintoi), CS2 (corn + Stylosanthes guianensis –</em> <em>Corn + S. guianensis), CS3 (corn + cowpea – upland rice + cowpea), CS4 (corn + </em>&nbsp;<em>rice bean – Corn + Rice bean) and CS5 (corn – corn), were employed as treatments. </em>&nbsp;<em>LAI, DMY, HI and GY were significantly influenced by the various imposed CAPS</em> <em>relative to the control (CS5, sole corn). However, recorded NAR values showed to be</em> <em>higher in CS5 (sole corn).&nbsp; Highest GY was obtained in CS2 (4.26 t ha</em> <em>) as the mean for the 2-cropping seasons. Among the CAPS, the used of A. pintoi and rice bean</em> <em>proved to be a promising associated legumes species to complement the base crop. Results of the study, provides the initial merits of adoption of CAPS in Northern</em> <em>Mindanao within the context of productivity, profitability and resiliency amidst a</em> <em>changing climate. </em></p> 2018-12-28T04:56:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by the Y’Apayaos of Sta. Praxedes in the Province of Cagayan, Philippines 2018-12-28T05:56:46+00:00 Verlino D. Baddu [email protected] Narcitas B. Ouano [email protected] <p><em>This ethnobotanical study documents the medicinal plant species used by the Y’Apayaos of Sta. Praxedes, Province of Cagayan, Northern Philippines. The descriptive design and the rapid rural ethnobotanical appraisal method were utilized in gathering the data from 39 elderly Y’Apayaos using a semi-structured interview guide as the tool in gathering the profile of the respondents and to find out the different medicinal plants used by the Y’Apayaos. Frequency counts and percentage distribution were used in treating the quantitative data. The findings show that the Y’Apayaos identified a total of 38 medicinal plant species used with the Subosub, or Sambong (Blumea balsamifera) as the most frequently identified medicinal plant. The medicinal plants, mostly trees and herbs, are commonly found around their dwelling places and in the nearby forests within their locality. Also, the Y’Apayaos use medicinal plants in curing ailments such as common cold, cough, flu, fever, stomach ache and urinary tract infection (UTI). The leaves are the most utilized parts for medicinal purposes and are prepared for concoctions.&nbsp; </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-28T04:54:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination of Farm Level Soil Erosion Using the Revised Universal Loss Equation (RUSLE) 2018-12-28T08:56:58+00:00 Edgar Allan C. Po [email protected] Mark Alexis O. Sabines [email protected] Jan Taat [email protected] <p><em>The authors present this investigation concerning estimate of soil loss at a corn farm. Soil erosion is an enormous concern particularly in sloping agricultural lands. Heavy siltation of any river system after a heavy rain event upstream is indicative of&nbsp;</em><em>soil erosion. However, it is difficult to convince farmers of the urgency to initiate soil erosion control measures at the individual farm level without providing estimates of soil loss. The objectives of this study were a) to generate terrain or digital elevation&nbsp;</em><em>models (DEMs); and b) to estimate the extent of soil erosion in a representative cornproducing farm using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). DEMs were generated by extracting data from Google Earth (GE), and conducting a topographic profiling using dual frequency survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers on a representative corn-growing farm in Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines. The annual amount of soil erosion estimated by the RUSLE for the modeled corn farm was 16 mTha-1 (4.08 cm) using GE DEM. On the other hand, the use of GPS-derived DEM had about 340% higher estimated soil loss at 55 mTha1 (12.85 cm).The GE elevation was higher than GPS in 22% of the land area while 77% of the study land area had GPS elevation higher than GE. The soil erosion figures obtained in the study serve as an objective starting point in exploring ways and means to mitigate the loss of soil which is an agricultural resource of vital importance, thereby contributing to agricultural sustainability and productivity.</em></p> 2018-12-28T04:53:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Feed Water Heaters Performance Indicators and Characteristics on the 405MW Coal-Thermal Power Plant 2018-12-28T09:30:10+00:00 Jameson R. Almedilla [email protected] Leonel L. Pabilona [email protected] Eliseo P. . Villanueva [email protected] <p><em>The coal-fired thermal power plant with a capacity of 3x135 MW gross or a total of 405 MW is composed of two high-pressure, one deaerator-heater and four lowpressure feed water heaters arranged in cascading stages on each of the three units. The&nbsp;</em><em>objectives of the study are to determine the performance of these feed water heaters, both HP and LP, using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Performance Test Code (ASME PTC) 12.1 and Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) Inc. procedures with engineering report and comparative discussions. Performance indicators such as terminal temperature difference (TTD), drain cooler approach (DCA) and temperature rise (TR) across heater were used to determine each unit’s feed water heater system performance. The results showed that the high-pressure feed water heaters (HPH) were significantly more efficient compared to the low-pressure feed water heaters (LPH). An alarming off-design condition was encountered by the last stage heater, LPH7, in unit one where it showed a lower TR of around 2.95°C and the highest TTD of 49.86ºC. Thus, the results of the test showed that unit one and two has some problem on its last stage heater while unit three was performing better than the other two units. Based on the evaluation of the results, the last stage heaters were recommended to be evaluated for further analysis to prevent failure of equipment and these need necessary improvements. Generally, heaters are part of power station for</em><em>the increase of cycle efficiency.</em></p> 2018-12-28T04:52:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Influencing the Delay of Road Construction Projects in Northern Mindanao, Philippines 2018-12-28T09:28:30+00:00 Ruel R. Cabahug [email protected] Mariell B. Arquita [email protected] Sheena Marie E. De La Torre [email protected] Michelle S. Valledor [email protected] Shiela Mae D. Olivares [email protected] <p><em>Delayed construction project implementation is one of the most common problems that the government experiences all the time. With so many factors attributed in causing delayed infrastructure projects, there is a need to determine the most prevalent causes of the delay in project completion. This study evaluates the factors influencing the delay of road construction projects supervised by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) in Northern Mindanao. A total number of 139 completed road projects during year 2016 with 25 contractors were evaluated. Findings revealed that there were four factors that caused the delay of road construction projects; these are (1) road right of way, (2) change in quantity, (3) peace and order and (4) heavy rain.</em></p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Enhancement of Rice Seedling Growth with Rhizobacteria Inoculation in Response to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-induced Drought 2018-12-28T05:56:46+00:00 Jayvee A. Cruz [email protected] Josef Mikhail R. Bautista [email protected] Reynante L. Ordonio [email protected] Erlinda S. Paterno [email protected] <p>&nbsp;<em>Drought is a major constraint to rice production in the rainfed upland or rainfed </em>&nbsp;<em>lowland environments. Rhizobacteria, prevalent in rice root system, can produce</em> <em>enzymes and hormones that can aid in enhancing plant water retention. Drought</em> <em>tolerance of rice variety PSB Rc23 was assessed following inoculation with each of the</em> <em>140 rhizobacterial isolates from Camarines Sur, Apayao, and Isabela. Isolates were</em> <em>screened using the stress substance polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. In response to</em> <em>25% PEG, a more severe stress (= water potential of -7.5 bars), 4 of the 140</em> <em>rhizobacterial isolates were selected as drought-tolerant. The selection was based on</em> <em>the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and</em><em>indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and plant’s response in terms of mild leaf rolling, less leaf tip drying, and enhanced plant growth. ACC deaminase reduces ethylene level, thereby enhancing plant tolerance to drought stress. IAA enhances root formation; thus,influencing water absorption.</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-28T05:55:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Viscosity and Heat Transfer on Developed Marine Fuel Preheating System Utilizing Diesel Engine Exhaust   2018-12-28T08:58:30+00:00 Ralph Martin L. Castellano [email protected] Antonio-Abdu Sami M. Magomnang [email protected] Eliseo P. Villanueva [email protected] <p>&nbsp;<em>Diesel engines in maritime applications exert heat energy from combustion gases. The main engines are the prime movers of ships and vessels; used marine fuel oil serves as working substance while the auxiliary diesel engine provides mechanical energy to the electric generator through the combustion of diesel fuel. The marine fuel oil preheating system is a contributor for energy consumption and diesel fuel consumption of auxiliary engines. Research on waste heat recovery from exhaust gases led to an&nbsp;</em><em>alternative source of heat which may be applied to marine fuel oil as it enters the electrical operated pre-heater and purifier. The purpose of this study is to determine the heat transfer equations for fluid heat exchanger, heat transfer conduction and&nbsp;</em><em>convection through pipe. The mathematical equation derivation resulted specifications, size and dimensions of a serpentine coil, conveying pipe and baffle plate of the heat exchanger assembly. This was done by fabricating a serpentine copper coil&nbsp;</em><em>tube due to the higher thermal conductivity of copper compared to other tubing materials. The conveying pipe and baffles were made from 1.2 mm steel sheet because of its durability and availability in the market. Results of the conducted test and&nbsp;</em><em>simulation have shown that 92% heat was gained from the aimed temperature. Heat transfer units were also enough to heat marine fuel oil. A highly viscous fluid ranges from 150 to 190 centistokes at normal temperature reduced its viscosity to 119 </em><em>centistokes at 57°C. This is the target temperature to feed the fluid through a purifier</em><em>.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-28T05:56:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##